Microbial Physiology notes lec7 10-8-10

Most of the protein organelle contain 1 or 2 subunits

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-most of the protein organelle contain 1 or 2 subunits; if they contain 2 subunits, one of it is the ATPase to energize the protease; if there is 1 protein, then it’s a fused protein w/ both the ATPase activity and proteasome activity fused into a single polypeptide chain -bacteria have all kinds of membrane bound organelles 1. Differential txn a. Transcriptional fusions of flagellar genes go to the swarmer cell pole and stays there this is made early on in the swarmer cell side i. if you make a transcriptional fusion of flagellar gene (i.e make a beta galactosidase fusion to a flagellar protein at the transactional level) and express it in swarmer cell only then it will stay there, if its made in the swarmer cell divisional half of the cell, then it will remain there b. Polarity is dependent on upstream regulatory regions, not on the structure of mRNA or structure of protein c. Reporter genes expressed from their own promoters go to both compartments i. If you have a reporter gene like beta galactosidase or GFP, which is under the control of its own promoter, not under the differentiation specific promoter, what happens is its made through out the whole cytoplasm of the cell, it isn’t pole specific, so there is something specific going on w/ the differentiation genes d. Upstream cis acting elements are for: (1) Sigma54 (2) an enhancer (3) IHF these genes are expressed late in the cell cycle and are responsible for differential txn i. up-stream cis acting element elements that are in the DNA, but not necessarily retained in the mRNA, and definitely not in the protein are responsible for the differential transcriptions ii. they contain a binding site for a sigma factor sigma factor 54 does morphogenesis w/ respect to all the structures w/in the
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swarmer cell working primarily in swarmer cell, but not exclusively iii. sigma factor 70 is concerned w/ structure and proteins involved in formation of the stalk, working primarily in stalk, but not exclusively iv. enhancer: protein that binds to DNA and activates gene expression it can bind up/downstream of promoter, it can act at a distance as a result of chromosomal folding, so enhancer comes in contact w/ txn initiator complex e. Electron micrograph revels a region that was right at place of cell division is going to take place, but hadn’t taken place before has seem to exclude colloidal gold it suggested that there might be some type of physical barrier—semi-permeable?—never been confirmed f. Sigma factor 54 and enhancer are largely, but not exclusively confined to the swarmer cell pole g. DNA is condensed rather than relaxed in the swarmer cell
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