Agnosticism which amounts to a position of uncertainty about God’s existence (literally “no knowledge”) to more hardened positions that tend to be quite dogmatic about the fact that God does not exist. Group of self-described secular humanists (a person who embraces a philosophy of life that excludes supernaturalism and a personal god, emphasizes reason and scientific evidence) to draft the “Humanist Manifesto” Others tend to be atheistic by default more than by conviction about God’s nonexistence as a result of living in a secularized world in which reliance on scientific knowledge and rational inquiry leaves little room for God in their experience. Some refer to this sort of atheism in terms of naturalism (positioned characterized by the conviction that nothing exists beyond the natural world) because of its focus on nature and knowledge available through the natural sciences. Pantheism equates god with the universe and the universe with god by conceiving of both as identical and entirely consistent with one another.
God must not be understood as a personal and relational being who may be distinguished from the universe. An influential version of this understanding appears in the teachings of the Vedanta school of Hinduism that “atman is Brahman.” Here “atman” refers to the individual soul or personal essence of living things. “Brahman” refers to the divine, which is the eternal essence of the universe or the cosmic soul. Thus, the expression “atman is Braham” equates the individual souls and the cosmic soul without distinction. This notion is tantamount to claiming that god is everything and everything is god, provided that “god” is understood as an impersonal entity. Pantheistic views recognize a spiritual dimension to human life but do not envision that spiritual dimension in terms of personal relationship. Global perspective – has proven compelling to Eastern minds and has exerted significant influence in the West. Theism w orldview that entails belief in the existence of at least one personal and intelligent divine being. Distinguish between the physical and spiritual worlds. Theists often believe that human life should be ordered according to the divine will and that creatures owe the creator reverence, respect, and gratitude at the very least. A theistic worldview that includes only one God may be described more precisely as monotheistic. Three of the world’s major theistic religions are monotheistic : Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. o A theistic worldview that includes multiple gods, such as the gods of the Greco-Roman pantheon, may be described more precisely as polytheistic . - Cognitive dissonance uncomfortable state in which a person holds inconsistent or contradictory ideas or beliefs, particularly in relation to morality and conduct. o In cases in which a person knows that life cannot be lived in ways that are consistent with specific aspects of his or her worldview, the person may begin
to experience something like mental stress because of the conflict or dissonance between conviction and behavior.
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