Ch 3 Stoichiometry and Calculations.pdf

Ensign stoichiometry and calculations common types of

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S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Common types of chemical reaction • Combustion Combustion • Combination d iti • decomposition 11 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Combustion: A chemical reaction where something burns in oxygen producing heat something burns in oxygen, producing heat Combustion of metals Combustion of diatomic molecules Combustion of nonmetal compounds C b ti f h d b Combustion of hydrocarbons Combustion of more complex organic molecules 12 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations
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Hydrocarbon combustion Reactants are a hydrocarbon (C x H y ) and O 2 , products are CO 2 and H 2 O 13 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Write the balanced chemical equation for the combustion of butane (tetracarbon decahydride) Identify the reactants and products Write the unbalanced chemical equation •Start by balancing an element that only occurs in one compound on each side of the equation 14 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations C b ti Common types of chemical reaction • Combustion • Combination decomposition • decomposition 0resources/media/CONTAC%7E1.MOV 15 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Patterns of chemical reactivity • Alkali metal + water Alkali metal + water Alkali metal + halogen 16 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations
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Concept check Chemical formulas subscripts Chemical equations coefficients Balancing equations Common reactions Combustion Combination Decomposition 17 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Chemical calculations Atomic mass Form la mass Formula mass The mole (mol) Empirical and molecular formulas Chemical equations and balancing 18 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations Atomic Mass: The mass of an atom is proportional to the number of p + n and e - the atom has the number of p , n, and e subatomic particle mass in grams mass in amu proton 1.673 x 10 -24 g 1.0073 amu neutron 1.675 x 10 -24 g 1.0087 amu electron 9.11 x 10 -28 g 5.49 x 10 -4 1 amu = 1 66054 x 10 -24 g 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10 19 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations 1 amu = 1 66054 x 10 -24 g 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10 1 1/12 th f 12 C 1 amu 1/12 the mass of th f 1 t f 12 C 12 the mass of 1 atom of C 12 amu 20 S. Ensign, stoichiometry and calculations
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