Idiosyncratic Reactions -Tartrazine can cause rashes and headaches -benzoates in jams -sulfites in white wines -monosodium glutamate MSG (chinese restaurant syndrome) -Capsaicin -Salsa sniffles Microbes In US, 50 million food related illnesses/year, 130k hospitalizations, 3k deaths Salmonella -gastroenteritis symptoms, starts 6hrs-2 days after consumption & lasts 1-2 days -Daniel Salmon first described it -can leave you with reactive arthritis, cardiac problems, lactose intolerance, chronic diarrhea, food allergies -wise to assume all chicken is contaminated with salmonella -keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold -wash reusable grocery bags -cantaloupe poisoning because bacteria is on outside and comes in contact with knife that cuts the inside Campylobacter Jejuni -2-5 day incubation period and infection can last several weeks -same gastroenteritis symptoms -can cause Guillain Barre Syndrome (similar to MS where protective layer of nerves erodes) Listeria Monocytogenes -can grow at refrigerator temperatures -found in high protein foods (cheese, processed meats) - gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis -starts few days- 3 weeks after consumption and requires immediate medical health -Maple leaf sold cold cuts that were contaminated Staphylococcus -found in skin and nasal secretions -heat stable -onset of symptoms within hours and passes quickly campylobacter perfringens Shigella
botulinum clostridium -0.0000001g can kill -there’s an antitoxin -paralysis is a big symptom -anaerobic -can also be used for botox because it paralyzes muscles -can treat chronic anal fissures E Coli -cantaloupe poisoning because bacteria is on outside and comes in contact with knife that cuts the inside -found in intestines of animals -if intestine contents come into contact with the meat it can be contaminated, especially burgers -cook internal temperature of 70 degrees celsius/160 deg fahrenheit -food irradiation can curb the problem which kills bacteria -sprouts prone to E Coli because they’re grown in a high moisture environment and prone to bacterial contamination Hepatitis A Virus -incubation 15-50 days and infection can last months -flu like symptoms, jaundice -trichinella spiralis Bacterial Infection -where bacterium multiplies in the body Bacterial Intoxication -reaction to poisons caused by bacteria Cooking Chemical change has bearing on diet and cancer -maillard reaction, when toasted becomes brown -cooking meat causes water loss (dehydration) -polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic (when meats are charred) found in exhaust engines, tobacco smoke, cooked meats -heterocyclic amines, interact with DNA by intercalating with DNA by slipping into slots that DNA provides Bread -glucose + yeast = CO2 + ethanol (allows it to rise) -baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) + acid = CO2 + ethanol -baking powder (monocalcium phosphate, an acid) + sodium bicarbonate = CO2 + ethanol
- Sodium Bicarbonate added to keep emerald colour in peas, when veggies are heated 2 protons are added and changes colour thus sodium bicarbonate added to maintain pretty colour
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