Besides being nutritionally important maternal milk

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Besides being nutritionally important, maternal milk is involved in the defense of the baby against infectious agents. Shortly after delivery, the mother produces more fluid milk called colostrum, which is rich in immunoglobulins (antibodies). These antibodies are not absorbed by the baby’s circulation but rather cover the internal surface of the baby’s bowels, attacking possible antigens and making it more difficult for pathogenic bacteria to proliferate within the organ.
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23. How are antivenoms produced? Why are antivenoms an example of passive immunization? Antivenoms are obtained by the following process: the venom (antigen) is injected into other mammals, such as in horses; these animals make specific antibodies against the antigen; blood from the animals is collected and purified to obtain the antibodies; and this antibody-containing material is the antivenom. When a human being is infected by the antigen, the specific antivenom is given to him/her and the action against the antigen occurs. Antivenoms may also be administered as a preventive measure and, since they basically consist of specific immunoglobulins against some antigen, the process is an example of passive immunization. 24. What is the difference between homologous and heterologous immunoglobulins? Homologous immunoglobulins are human (from the same species) immunoglobulins. In the case of inoculation in animals, such as in veterinary procedures, homologous immunoglobulins from the blood of animals of the same species of the animal undergoing treatment are treated. Heterologous immunoglobulins are obtained from animals of different species from the one into which they will be injected. Homologous immunoglobulins are safer, since it is collected from individuals of the same species of the individual into which
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they will be injected and therefore the risk of the antibodies being recognized as foreign and triggering an immune response is lower. Heterologous immunoglobulins are more prone to being destroyed by the antibodies of the individual. How Vaccines Work 25. What are natural active immunization and artificial active immunization? Natural active immunization is when a prior natural infection induces the primary immune response, specific memory cells are produced and the individual becomes immune to new infections from the antigen. This is what happens in diseases that affect people only once in life, such as the mumps and chickenpox. Artificial active immunization is when the primary immune response is caused by the inoculation of specially prepared antigens into an individual. This is the case with vaccines. 26. Why are vaccines made of the disease agent or fragments of it? The goal of vaccines is to artificially induce a specific primary immune response (and the resulting formation of antibodies and memory cells) for a given infection or disease, in order to immunize the individual against infections by the pathogenic agent in the future.
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