Supports premise that these 5 dimensions of personality may be rooted in biology.
Average Big 5 scores in 56 nationsBig 5 FactorHighLowOpennessChile, BelgiumEast Asia(Japan, Hong Kong)ConscientiousnessAfricaEast AsiaExtraversionEastern Europe(Serbia, Croatia)Bangladesh, FranceAgreeablenessAfricaEast AsianNeuroticismEast Asia(Japan, Hong Kong)AfricaResearchers in China have identified some different factors from the Big 5- Interpersonal relatedness- Dependability
How Genes Affect Personality: Twin Studies
Traits Beyond Five-factor ModelMachiavellianismImmoral self-interestNeed for AchievementNeed for CognitionAuthoritarianismNarcissismSelf-esteemOptimismAlexithymia (social-emotional competence)
Person-Situation DebateWalter Mischel: Personality and AssessmentSituation > Traits?More like: Situation + Traits
The Marshmallow TestDelay of Gratification•Stanford University, late 1960+ (Walter Mischel), original n= 500+, follow-up around every 10 years•Could they wait 15 minutes?
Outcomes•Kids who could wait longer (i.e. could delay gratification) tended to have:–Higher SAT scores–Greater educational attainment–Higher self-worth–Ability to cope with stress
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- Spring '14
- Big Five personality traits, McCrae