expressing statements or perceptions that the client states. The process is to help the client to integrate their internal perceptions and their behaviors i. Exaggeration is over-ːdramatizing WKH FOLHQW·V JHVWXUHV DQG PRYHPHQWV to help gain insight into their meaning. j. May I feed you a sentence is the question that the counselor asks before giving the client a more specific expression of what the counselor believes is the underlying message of the client F. Rational-ːEmotive Therapy (Albert Ellis) 1. View of Human Nature a. RET assumes that the individual has the capacity to be completely rational, irrational, sensible or crazy, which Ellis believes is biologically inherent . b. Ellis is most concerned with irrational thinking especially that which creates upsetting or irrational thoughts. c. Ellis lists the most common irrational beliefs that clients find disturbing (Ellis, 1984, p.266) i. It is absolutely essential to be loved or approved of by every VLJQLILFDQW SHUVRQ LQ RQH·V OLIH² ii. To be worthwhile, a person must be competent , adequate, and achieving in everything attempted. iii. Some people are wicked, bad, and villainous and therefore should be blamed or punished. iv. It is terrible and a catastrophe whenever events do not occur as one hopes. v. Unhappiness is the result of outside events, and therefore a person has no control over such despair. vi. Something potentially dangerous or harmful should be cause to great concern and should always be kept in mind.
vii. Running away from difficulties and responsibilities is easier than facing them. viii. A person must depend on others and must have someone stronger on whom to rely. ix. 7KH SDVW GHWHUPLQHV RQH·V SUHVHQW EHKDYLRU DQG WKXV FDQQRW EH changed. x . A person should be upset by the problems and difficulties of others. xi. There is always a right answer to every problem, and a failure to find this answer is a catastrophe. d. Ellis sees the individual as being easily disturbed because of gullibility and suggestibility e. Ellis is a proponent of the individual thinking of their behavior as separate from their personhood, i.e. "I did a bad thing" rather than "I am a bad person." f. Ellis believes that each individual has the ability to control their thoughts, feelings and their actions. In order to gain this control, a person must first understand what they are telling themselves (self-ːtalk) about the event or situation . g . Ellis believes that cognitions about events or situations can be of four types: positive, negative, neutral, or mixed. These cognitions result in like thoughts with positive leading to positive thoughts, negative leading to negative thoughts, etc. 2. Role of the Counselor a . Counselors are direct and active in their teaching and correcting the FOLHQW·V FRJQLWLRQV b. Ellis believes that a good RET counselor must be bright, knowledgeable, empathetic, persistent, scientific, interested in helping others and use RET in their personal lives (Ellis, 1980).
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- Summer '17
- Thomas Sherman