Final Exam Review BIOGEO.docx

Existing evidence on the value of es is increasing

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Existing evidence on the value of ES is increasing but still scattered – a lack of information outside of Europe - Often difficult of impossible to form a complete picture of real losses and benefits - Losses are not often directly apparent o Long-term effects of tradeoffs o Cost/benefit can occur in different ecosystems or economic sectors - Distribution costs and benefits can be biased between different stakeholder groups o Benefits obtained on private level vs associate costs and often on a cultural or social level Ecological economists: ecosystems are capital assets – if managed well, provide a stream of benefits like any investment Understanding of ecosystem dynamics 1. Ecosystem have open boundaries 2. Ecosystems are dynamic 3. The larger the system, the more stable it will be 4. Energy for life on earth comes from the sun 5. Energy flows through ecosystems 6. Everything eats something else 7. All eating results in some wastes 8. Materials in organisms cycle 9. Information flow is an important resource 10. Species composition and ecosystem architecture change over time
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