Humanities Review.docx

Schism of 1054 great schism patriarch and papacy

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Schism of 1054 (Great Schism) : Patriarch and Papacy excommunicated each other → Eastern Orthodox Church vs Roman Catholic Church Fought over Iconoclasm (breaking of icons), Byzantine supported breaking; Icons (religious figure venerated by
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Byzantine Christians) Pope Urban II starts the Crusades (holy wars): limited military success, but demonstrated increased prominence in E Hemisphere affairs) 1st crusade: organized by French and Norman nobles to take Palestine under Christian control Only crusade to succeed, caused Muslims to launch a counterattack 4th crusade: Originally targeting Jerusalem but ended up sacking of Constantinople instead, initiates the collapse of the Byzantine empire Effects: Opened Europe to a wider world view, cultural diffusion, new economic trade was facillitated Fall of Byzantine Empire: External invaders: Muslim Saljuq Turks in the East, Normans in the West, Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Finally ends in 1453 when Ottoman Turks took Constantinople Black Death- spread through ports to Europe from Central Asia, death of serfs collapses feudalism; church’s inability to stop decreases papal authority Hundred Years War- France wins vs England, new weapons (longbows, cannons, mercenaries) undermine feudalism, causes rise in secular monarchs (to rule large armies) The Divine Comedy: By Dante Alighieri , Florentine, he was exiled in 1300 from Florence Describes Dante’s journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven Hell (the Inferno ): Dante guided by Roman poet Virgil and Beatrice (Dante’s love before she died) The poem has 100 cantos : 1st canto=introduction, 3 sections of 33; rhyme scheme is terza rima (aba, bcb, cdc…) 7 Deadly Sins: Pride, Envy, Wrath, Sloth, Avarice (greed), Gluttony, Lust 3 Levels of Hell: Incontinence (breaking of 7 sins), Violence, Fraud (being a traitor to, in order, Kin, Country, Guest, Lord) Satan : a beast frozen in a lake of ice in 9th layer, 6 bat-like wings, three-headed (forever chewing three traitors Judas, Cassius, and Brutus) Doomed lovers: Paolo and Francesca (found them in 2nd circle of Hell, lustful) Set precedent for the way people viewed hell→influenced W imagination Architecture: Pilgrimages became more popular; monks built churches and hostels on major routes The Romanesque Style (1000 - 1200): larger buildings and more Roman-looking (heavy stone and masonry) → Barrel arches and fireproof stone Paris gave birth to Gothic architecture, scholasticism, and the university; Gothic style began at the Abbey of Saint Denis with Abbot Suger , Gothic: “rude/barbarous”; did not follow Classical architecture Common characteristic: Verticality and luminosity Flying arches/buttress support pitched roof Suger was famous for his stained glass windows; reflected luminosity Mosaic vs Stained Glass Mosaic reflects light off opaque surface Light is seen through the stained glassand diverted into different colors Southernization: Began in Indus River valley , Indian and Malay sailors open up sea routes to China (Moluccan Spice markets)
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