iii Fermentation Microorganisms that ferment sugars to ethanol include yeasts

Iii fermentation microorganisms that ferment sugars

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iii. Fermentation Microorganisms that ferment sugars to ethanol include yeasts and bacteria. Research has focused on expanding the range and efficiency of the organisms used to convert sugar to ethanol.
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Figure 1.5 Simplified MSW to bio-ethanol process. Cost in Producing Bio-Ethanol from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) The cost of bioethanol per litre presented here mainly calculated from the cost of the main raw materials used which are municipal solid waste and sulfuric acid and processing cost. Fixed operating costs are excluded from this calculation. This is because municipal solid waste or biomass is the highest contributor to the cost of bioethanol as it contributes to almost 60% of the total production cost [9 yg iqmal]. Therefore, the focus here is to estimate the cost of bioethanol from two main raw materials needed. Surveying the different costs of mobilising municipal solid waste into lignocellulosic biomass today which include gathering, collecting, pre-processing, substitution and transportation to a downstream hub, the order of biomass can be mobilised at globally competitive costs for example at a cost of less than RM 250 per dry-weight tonne. The distance of transportation should be less than 100km in radius from the collection area [9 yg iqmal]. Also, the sulfuric acid is sells at RM 264 per tonne. By far, sulfuric acid is the biggest
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use of raw materials in the process of making bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In any case, the current technology enables the acid-sugar solution from hydrolysis separated into acid and sugar components by means of chromatographic separation. Using this technology almost up to 100% of the sulfuric acid can be recovered from the process [9 yg iqmal]. In this case, the total cost per litre of bioethanol produced is RM 1.51 excluding capital and fixed variable costs. However, without the recovery of sulfuric acid during hydrolysis, the cost of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass would be rose up to RM7.85, excluding capital and fixed variable costs. With ethanol prices now at RM 2.10 per litre, it is possible for the Malaysia to produce the bioethanol from oil palm trunk and wood wastes, yet it would be not profitable to produce ethanol from municipal solid waste or lignocellulosic biomass without using the recovery system for sulfuric acid during hydrolysis [9 yg iqmal].
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  • Fall '08
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