Formal writing also follows the rules and conventions

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Formal writing also follows the rules and conventions of Standard English. All of the text should be free of sentence, punctuation, and spelling errors. The following types of language may be common in informal writing, but they should be avoided in formal writing: Contractions Shortened versions of words and phrases such as can't and isn't Slang
Casual words or expressions specific to a particular group of people such as salty or GOAT Clichés Popular phrases that have been overused such as, "The early bird gets the worm" Idioms Phrases—unique to a certain language—that have become clichés such as, "It costs an arm and a leg" Textspeak Abbreviations, emoticons, and other phrases used in text messages or social media such as bae and ttyl Remember that your unique writer's voice can come out even in formal writing assignments. Think about the last time you dressed up for a special occasion. Even though your clothing was more formal than usual, it still reflected your individual personality. Your writing should do the same thing. Just because you can't use contractions or slang doesn't mean that you have to sound like a robot. Complexity Another factor in writing style is the complexity of your words and sentences. Complexity doesn't have to mean "complicated." Instead, complexity just means that your writing has many connected parts.
Sometimes, complicated words are unavoidable. If you're writing about a topic that involves technical or academic terms, you will probably need to use terms that are unfamiliar. However, these words are there for a purpose. Don't use complicated words just because they seem "smarter." Your writing will end up clunky or incorrect. Helpful Hint Using a thesaurus while writing is a great way to add complexity to your language. However, pay attention to the meanings of the words. Just because two words are synonyms, it doesn't guarantee that their meaning and connotation are the same. For example, even if essay and dictionary are listed in a thesaurus as synonyms, most everyone would agree that they are actually very different. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words that starts with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. To learn more about prepositions, see Lesson 9.1. If you add too many prepositional phrases to a sentence, the reader might have a difficult time finding the main idea . Look at this example: In situations like the one that the committee of impartial voters selected, the choice between right and wrong becomes complicated by the opinions and suggestions of parties that are outside of the committee's control. The subject and verb in this sentence are both buried under all of the prepositional phrases. If all of this information is truly necessary, consider breaking up the sentence into two separate sentences.

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