Structural (Constitutional) Isomers 2.Structural isomers exist for alkanes with more than three carbon atoms. Construct and draw all the structural isomers of each compound. For the most reasonable structures, remember that the lowest energy conformation of these structures will have all bonds staggered. a. butane (C4H10) – use dash/wedge drawingsb. heptane (C7H16) – construct and draw only those isomers where the longest chain is five carbon atoms (hint: there are such five structures); use line structures for the drawings 3.Construct and use line drawings to draw all structural isomers of these substituted alkanes.a. C4H9Br
b. C4H10O (hint: there are seven; photograph one alcohol and one ether among the isomers you construct) Cycloalkanes 4. Compounds with more than two carbon atoms have the potential to form cycloalkanes, ringed structures of –CH2– units. Construct, draw, and photograph these cycloalkanes. (Note that C3H6 and C4H8 are not easy to construct; this is not an accident.) a. cyclopropane (C3H6) (dash-wedge drawings) b. cyclobutane (C4H8) (dash-wedge drawings)
c. cyclopentane (C5H10) (hybrid drawings)d. cyclohexane (C6H12) (hybrid drawings)
• Compare the ideal, VSEPR-predicted bond angle for these carbon atoms to the bondangle observed in your constructed models for each cycloalkane. Estimate by howmany degrees the C–C–C bond angles in these structures deviate from the ideal bondangle. (Note: Only cyclopropane has all carbons in the same molecular plane.)Ideal angle for tetrahedral carbon atom: ~109.5ºCyclopropane actual angle: 60ºCyclobutane actual angle: 90ºCyclopentane actual angle: ~109.5ºCyclohexane: ~120º•
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Atom, Conformational isomerism, Chemical bond, Isomer