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Grant did not acknowledge pre-existing rights of Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine, Métis; Selkirk Treaty 1817 4 Chiefs granted a tract of land to Europeans in exchange for an annual payment of tobacco; not a land surrender Incident at Seven Oaks -1814 Pemmican Proclamation -Prohibition to export pemmican -Governor Miles Macdonell and Robert Semple -June 19 1816 open conflict, 35 Métis led by Cuthbert Grant confronted Semple and 26 volunteers -“when the smoke cleared,” Semple and all his men were dead, one Métis dead -Known “a massacre” after 1867 -Pierre Falcon song -Historian Lyle Dick, on the changing historiography -Métis frustrated with HBC monopoly, Métis denied clerical /managerial positions; half the earnings of Scottish employees; defending their livelihood & land Metis challenge to HBC -Métis agitation for free trade -Effectively breaking the HBC monopoly in 1849 -Pierre Guillaume Sayer case -Conviction for illegal trading -Armed demonstration outside the courthouse forced HBC from enforcing monopoly Merger of the HBC and NWC -1821 -Violence -Competition
-Incorporation of heads of both companies -Montreal supply route abandoned -Retirees settle in Red River Mid 19th century at Red River -Growing settlement -Remaining Selkirk settlers -“Countryborn” Anglo-Métis -Métis -Canadians -Retirement of fur traders and their families -1840s-1850s further west in search of buffalo, Métis hivernants (winterers) Buffalo Hunting - Robert Welsh, The Last Buffalo Hunter (book) Disappearing Buffalo -How to explain the disappearance of the herds? -Textbook? Norbert Welsh? (p.331) Gerhard Ens? -Evidence? -1879 the buffalo disappears as a free roaming species on the Canadian side of the border; 1883 disappears from the US side Assigned Reading -Greg Gillespie, “‘I was well pleased with our sport among the buffalo’: Big Game Hunters, Travel Writing and Cultural Imperialism in British North American West, 1847-72” -Exploration, travel narratives -Hunting narratives -Outsiders as eye-witnesses & experts -The taking of the land through stories, mapping, naming, science -big game hunters and “reckless slaughter” -William Francis Butler (pic) Recent Historiography -The disappearance of the buffalo herds as a free roaming species by 1879 on the Canadian side, by 1883 on the American side of the border -Blaming the Métis (Krech, The Ecological Indian) -William Dobak (blaming Indigenous hunters) -Qualitative history -Rewriting how we remember
Historian, Sylvia van Kirk -George Simpson, Governor 1821 -Betsy Sinclair -Margaret Taylor -1830 Simpson goes England comes back married to his cousin Frances -Frances Simpson does not stay long in Indian country, but the coming of white women changed the status of Indigenous and Métis women -