Psychopathology glutamate and gaba glutamate an

This preview shows page 7 - 9 out of 13 pages.

psychopathology Glutamate and GABA Glutamate, an excitatory transmitter, and GABA, an inhibitory transmitter, work in concert to balance functioning in the brain (thus, they are known as “chemical brothers”) GABA’s best-known effect is to reduce anxiety. A particular class of drugs, benzodiazepines, makes it easier for GABA molecules to attach themselves to receptors. The GABA system has a broad influence → seems to reduce overall arousal, temper our emotional responses, reduce levels of anger, hostility, and aggression, and even positive emotional states such as eager anticipation and pleasure. Serotonin (5HT) Approximately six major circuits of serotonin spread from the midbrain, looping around its various parts Regulates our behavior, moods, and thought processes Extremely low activity levels are associated with less inhibition and with instability, impulsivity, aggression, suicide, impulsive overeating, excessive sexual behavior, and a tendency to overreact to situations The class of drugs called selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used to treat a number of psychological disorders such as anxiety, mood, and eating disorders Norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) Part of the endocrine system Stimulates at least two groups of receptors called alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors Beta-blockers keep blood pressure and heart rate down Acts in a more general way and is not directly involved in specific patterns of behavior or in psychological disorders Dopamine Has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and disorders of addiction Dopamine and serotonin circuits influence many of the same behaviors, balancing each other out Deficiencies in dopamine have been associated with disorders such as Parkinson’s disease 4. Behavioral and Cognitive Science Cognitive science: concerned with how we acquire and process information and how we store and ultimately retrieve it Conditioning and Cognitive Processes Complex cognitive processing of information, as well as emotional processing, is
involved when condition occurs, even in animals Learned helplessness is a phenomenon observed in both humans and other animals when they have been conditioned to expect pain, suffering, or discomfort without a way to escape it. It is thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression. Positive psychology is a new field of study in which investigators explore factors that account for positive attitudes and happiness Social learning Albert Bandura observed that organisms can learn just as much by observing what happens to someone else in a given situation (modeling/observational learning). He described that much of what we learn depends on our interactions with other people around us. Prepared learning We have become highly prepared for learning about certain types of objects or situations over the course of evolution because this knowledge contributes to the survival of the species May account for the greater incidence of snake and spider phobias in adult women

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture