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Numbness and par aesthesia in face transient aphasia

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Numbness and par aesthesia in face Transient aphasia or confusion may develop Repeated attacks may be a warning sign for obstruction related to atherosclerosis Brain tumor- usually a primary tumor because of the blood brain barrier it doesn’t usually move through it, can send brain tumors to other areas of the body Brain Tumors Space occupying lesions that cause increased ICP (intercranial pressure) Benign & malignant tumors can be life-threatening Gliomas: primary brain malignant tumors (primary are rarely metasized) Meninges or pituitary tumors- similar neuro effects Secondary brain tumors Metastasizing from breast or lung tumors Cause effects similar to those of primary brain tumors Pathophysiology Primary malignant brain tumors Usually no well- defined margins Invasive, irregular projections into adjacent tissues, are difficult to remove totally Usually inflammation around the tumor Etiology Brainstem/cerebellar tumors common in children Adults: more frequently in the cerebral hemisphere Signs & Symptoms Site of tumor determines focal signs Seizures are often the first sign Headaches (increased ICP; vomiting, lethargy, irritability, personality and behavioral changes; possibly unilateral facial paralysis or visual problems Tumor causes death before you see general effects Treatment: may damage normal CNS tissue, surgery if the tumor is accessible, and chemotherapy/radiation (however many are radioresistant) ***She had to leave at this point & just said study everything about the Urinary chapter Chapter 21: Urinary System Disorders Urinary Incontinence & Retention Incontinence: Loss of voluntary control of the bladder Enuresis: Involuntary urination by a child age 4+ years Often related to developmental delay, sleep pattern. Psychosocial aspect Stress incontinence (more common on women): Increased intra-abdominal pressure forces urine through the sphincter (Ex: coughing, lifting, laughing. Multiple pregnancies)
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Overflow incontinence: Incompetent bladder sphincter- older adults have a weakened detrusor muscle that may prevent complete emptying of the bladder leading to frequency and incontinence Spinal cord injuries or brain damage Neurogenic bladder- may be spastic of flaccid Interference with CAN and ANA voluntary controls of the bladder Retention: inability to empty the bladder May be accompanied by overflow incontinence Spinal cord injury at sacral level blocks micturition reflex May follow anesthesia (general or spinal) Diagnostic Tests Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): 5-18 mg/dL Creatine: 0.6- 1.2 mg/dL Uric Acid: 2-6 mg/dL Electrolytes Glucose: 70-110 mg/dl Sodium (NA+): 135-145 meQ/L Potassium (K+): 3.5-5 meQ/L Calcium (Ca): 8.8-10.8 mg/dL Magnesium (Mg): 1.6-2.6 mg/dL Chloride (Cl): 98-106 meQ/L Diagnostic Test: Labs & Others Blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine: ability to excrete nitrogen wastes Metabolic acidosis: From ABG to test the ability of the renal tubules to control acid base balance Anemia:
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