therefore selection DP as a study sample is Department /Police Station No. of Sections Percentage General Department of Training 15 2% Dubai Police Academy 59 8% Decision Making Support Center 19 2% HQ‘s Regulatory Office 23 3% P o lice Statio n s (1 0 Statio ns ) 70 9% Total 767 100%
consistent with previous studies‘ approach (Antony, Leung, Knowles, & Gosh, 2002). In other words, bigger public organizations such as DP have most current policies and a bigger sample size. Furthermore, the sample for this study is planned to be 565 sections in Dubai Police. The head section officers are seen as the most suitable respondents in this study because they are responsible for setting up goals and implementing strategies and programs in their sections. In addition, head section officers as a middle management are the key player as creators, monitors, and updators of the performance measures (Kumar, et al ., 2009). Therefore, they have more knowledge about the activities than other employees and managers. In other words, implementing, practicing, evaluation, and following up practices and programs such as TQM and ERP are their daily job. Their position as a link between managers and employees enable them to have more knowledge about what is going on in their sections. In brief, the middle level managers have the sufficient qualifications and experiences and aware of practices such as TQM and ERP in their respective organization (Talib, 2013). To this end, they are in a position to answer all the questions of the questionnaire. 4.5 Measurement of Variables and Instrumentation Regardless of demographic factors, all variables in this study were measured using multiple items used in previous research. However, phrasing of items was modified to match the local setting and sample.
The dependent variable in this study is organizational performance, while the mediating variables are organizational excellence and entrepreneurial organizational culture, and the independent variables are total quality management, enterprise resource planning, and entrepreneurial orientation. The Likert scale measure is widely used in social science and one of the most commonly measure to examine the impact of TQM practices, EO on the organizational performance (Al-Marri et al ., 2007). There are different measurement scales in Likert such as a five- point and a seven-point Likert scale that will be chosen according to the previous research. Despite some literatures argued about the benefits inherent in 5-point Likert Scale but still a 7-point Likert Scale is said to produce detailed feedback and not subjecting the respondents of the survey into an undue cognitive burden (Cavana et al ., 2001; Hair et al ., 2010). Thus, in order to achieve a better optimal result in scale reliability and information processing, 7-point Likert scale is argued to be efficient (Churchill & Peter, 1984). In addition, for the purpose of statistical conclusion validity, the scales used in this study were designed to be rated by 5 Likert-point and 7 Likert- point scale. The multiple scales and reversed items in the questionnaire can help to avoid
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- Summer '17
- Management, Strategic business unit, Dubai police