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14.) Who was Paracelsus? How did Paracelsus’s ideas contradict the works of Aristotle, and especially Galen?Paracelsus was a German-Swiss physician and alchemist who established the role of chemistry in medicine. Paracelsus rejected the work of both Aristotle and Galen and attacked the universities as centers of their philosophies as he and his followers hoped to replace the traditional system with a new chemical philosophy that was based on a new understanding of nature, which came directly out of new observations and experiments. In accordance with the macrocosmic-microcosmic principle, Paracelsus believed that the chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were reproduced in human beings on a smaller scale. Disease was no longer caused by an imbalance of the four humors as Galen had argued but was actually due to chemical imbalances that were localized in specific organs and could be treated with chemical remedies.15.) Who was Andreas Vesalius? What was the title of his most famous publication? What was the book all about?
Vesalius is a Flemish anatomist, physician, author who is viewed as the founder of modern anatomy. A famous book of Galen’s that encouraged Vesalius to write his masterpiece On the Fabric of the Human Body was On Anatomical Procedures. This book led Vesalius to emphasize practical research as the principal avenue for understanding human anatomy. His masterpiece was based on his personal dissection of a body to illustrate what he was discussing. Vesalius’s anatomical treatises presented a careful examination of the individual organs and general structure of the human body. His approach to teaching anatomy enabled him to rectify many of Galen’s glaring errors, as instead of using animals as Galen had, Vesalius was able to use a human body to identify aspects of human anatomy.16.) How did William Harvey’s work deal a severe blow to the theories of Galen?Harvey’s work which was based on astute observations and experiments, allowed him to demolish Galen’s’ theories on physiology. Harvey demonstrated that the heart and not the liver was the beginning point of the circulation of blood in the body, and that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries and that the blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body. Harvey’s theory of circulation of the blood laid the foundation for modern physiology through its use of new and more definitive evidence. 17.) Who was Robert Boyle? What were his contributions to the scientific revolution? Boyle was an Irish Philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, who is known as one of the founders of modern chemistry. Boyle was one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments. However, his pioneering work was in the properties of gas, which led to the introduction of Boyle’s law, which states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it. Boyle also rejected the medieval belief that all mater consisted of the same components in favor of the view that matter is composed of atoms.