H 2013 projects can be slowed down also due to the

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model, which is more like a silo (Kerzner. H. 2013). Projects can be slowed down also due to the vertical chain of command. This can make the approval process very slow. Communication difference in a Project and Non- Project Based Organization Project Management interface can vary greatly depending on whether working for a project or non-project based organization. Project managers need to communicate and coordinate project activities horizontally between line organizations (Kerzner. H. 2013). When working for a project based organization project managers will have more responsibility and more authority. This makes delegating projects much easier. Project-based organizations are centered around the projects, and the communication runs along a horizontal line, where information reaches the vertical line to specific departments. Most non- project-based organizations are functional. Functional communication runs vertically compared to a project based organizations communications. Non-project organizations focus primarily on the functionality of the departments within an organization rather the entire project (Morley. M. 2016). Challenges Presented to Project Managers in Non-Project Based Organization Project managers will come across some problems or assumptions that were failed to be seen from time to time. Non- project-based organizations present many challenges to project managers due to: The line of communication, which follows a functional model ( Mulchay. R.2013). Project managers follow a horizontal communication. Few projects available Refusal to give authority to project managers. Lack of understanding of the project needs.
5 According to Kerzner, “the tip of the iceberg syndrome (Kerzner. 2016)” mostly occurs in non- project based organizations. This is where challenges can come to the surface later in the project due to problems below the surface. This is where tip-of-the-ice-berg comes from. What is on the top is just a small amount of challenges to what is below the surface.

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