EEL 5225 F10 Exam2 Solutions

# Not all of the beam is moving hence the kinetic

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Not all of the beam is moving. Hence the kinetic energy of the bending cantilever beam is less than the kinetic energy if the whole beam were moving. 5. The displacement vs. force frequency response function is shown below for a standard mass-spring-damper system. Draw arrows from each of the keywords to the appropriate region on the plot. “mass dominated” “spring dominated” “damper dominated”

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Page 3 of 3 6. Describe what are state variables and state equations. State variables are system variables that represent a “state” of the system, e.g. voltage, charge, current, force, velocity, displacement, etc. State equations are first-order ODE’s that describe how the state variables change in time. 7. For an electromechanical transducer, explain why direct transduction is advantageous as compared to indirect transduction. In direct transduction, all of the input energy is converted. In indirect conversion, not all of the energy is converted—some is internally “stored” within the transducer. 8. Explain the phenomena of electrostatic pull-in and why it exists (how it occurs). Pull-in is a tendency for two capacitor plates to clamp shut. Pull in occurs because the electrostatic attractive force increases quadratically, whereas the restoring spring force only increases linearly. As the gap closes, there is a certain point where the attracting electrostatic force exceeds the spring force, and the plates will clamp shut. 9. Explain why a dc bias voltage is usually used for electrostatic transducers.
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• Fall '08
• Arnold
• Energy, Transducer, Electrical impedance, Microphone, state variables, frequency response function

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