The science of performance appraisal is directed

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“The science of performance appraisal is directed toward two fundamental goals: to create a measure that accurately assesses the level of an individual's job performance and to create an evaluation system that will advance one or more operational functions in an organization. Although all performance appraisal systems encompass both goals, they are reflected differently in two major research orientations, one that grows out of the measurement tradition, the other from human resources management and other fields that focus on the organizational purposes of performance appraisal.” (Milkovich & Wigdor, 1991)
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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT There is a variety of performance rating scales that can be used within an organization. One of the first types of appraisal scales was graphic scale. A graphic scale included a range of numbers such as 1-10. For example. one being the worst and 10 being the best. Each number representing a degree of attributes or performance quality of the employee. Scales may use alphabetic instead of numerical, such as 1=A. “Although these scales vary in the degree of explicitness, most provide only general guidance on the nature of the underlying dimension or on the definition of scale points along the continuum.” (Milkovich & Wigdor, 1991) Another numerical scale used more description on ranking. For example, Attitude: 1 poor, 2 satisfactory, 3 exceeds expectations, and 4 outstanding. “Raters are given the freedom to mark anywhere on the continuum—either at a defined scale point or somewhere between the points. Trait scales, which are constructed from employees' personal characteristics (such as integrity, intellectual ability, leadership orientation) are generally graphic scales. Many decades of research on ratings made with graphic scales found them fraught with measurement errors of unreliability, leniency, and range restriction,
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