o Monocytogenes (2008) – Maple Leaf E. coli (2012) – XL Foods Inc. o O157:H7 – bacteria found in guts of cattle, which was found in some organic food Despite increased safety measures, the incidence of food poisoning is still higher than it should be – why? o Better reporting – maybe people before did not go to the doctor when they had food poisoning o Increased meat consumption o Increased lifespan o Increased traveling o Industrial farming o Use of antibiotics in animal feed (70% of antibiotics used in the U.S. are put in animal feed) Used to prevent spread of diseases and to make animals grow faster (less competition for food in the guts) By the time the animal is slaughtered, the antibiotic residue is gone The concern is that animals exposed to these antibiotics may develop bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics o You get sick from this bacteria and antibiotics don’t work because the bacteria are resistant Video 9 Sodium phosphate (many different phosphates) – used to retain moisture and add texture to food Sodium tripolyphosphate is used in cleaning agents and in Kraf macaroni and cheese o In cleaning agent, ties up calcium and makes water less hard Trisodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) is said to be used in incendiary bombs, but it’s not the same phosphate (P 4 in bombs) Video 10 Flavor vs. aritificial flavor o Flavor comes from natural sources (in turkey, a milk component may be added to imitate butter) o Artificial flavor comes fully from synthetic sources Of all chemical additives present (1,800), most are flavor additives Vanillin is a chemical that is naturally occurring in vanilla and gives it its flavor o In natural vanilla extract, more chemicals are added along with Vanillin to give it a finer taste Using artificial smoke flavor may be safer than broiling meat o It is produced by passing smoke through a water solution where some of the flavor is picked up – the most toxic chemicals are not picked up Lesson 2: Food Additives II Video 1
In Canada, 10 synthetic colors (8+2) are allowed and 25 natural colors The most widely used food color in North America is caramel (4-methylimidazole) o Comes from plants o Natural color used in most cola drinks o Concern that it is a potential carcinogen in the case of animals California Proposition 65 Coca cola has decided to use another coloring that is not produced from 4-methylimidazole because of this Video 2 Another widely used natural color is beta-carotene (E160a) o Natural color present in carrots o Canthaxantin (E160g) gives same reddish orange color It was widely used as an artificial tanning agent (30mg/pill – recommended 4 pills per day) In food, only taking in about 5.5mg Fat-soluble, like beta-carotene When you take it in through pills, it deposits in the fatty tissue under the skin, and the skin will appear colored Today it is not allowed as a tanning agent The amount used would deposit in the retina and cause a crystal
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- Spring '11
- E number, Food additive, Wax , Chemistry Video