charge changes the electric potential energy of the charge just as the

# Charge changes the electric potential energy of the

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charge changes the electric potential energy of the charge just as the gravitational potential energy is changed when a mass is moved in the earth’s gravitational field The Electric Potential: The amount of work done in moving the test charge depends on the size of the test charge A convenient way to describe the effect of a field producing charge on nearby charges is to look at the potential energy per unit charge associated with any point in the field SCI-122 Session 14 The Electric Potential: Define electric potential = electric potential energy charge

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6 SCI-122 Session 14 The Electric Potential: The units electric potential is the volt (V) 1 V = 1 J/C Changes in the electric potential are called potential differences (Voltage) Electric Current: Recall that an electric current is just charges in motion A more precise definition of electric current, “I” or “ i ”, is that it represents the time rate of flow of electric charge current = charge time I = q t or SCI-122 Session 14 Electric Current: There are two ways to describe the electric current in a circuit Convention current (a flow of positive (+) charge based on historical description) Electron current (a flow of negative ( ) charge based on the role of electrons in the current)
7 SCI-122 Session 14 Electric Current: The nature of electrical current Misconceptions from a fluid flow analogy Electric current is the movement of charges through a wire Charges flow out one end of a conductor as others flow into the other end Charges move through a wire at the speed of light Electric Current: The nature of electrical current First consider the charges in a metal conductor without an electrical current Charges are undergoing random motion at very high speed Charges are colliding with the particles that make up the metal as well as with other charges There is no overall net movement in any one direction SCI-122 Session 14 Electric Current: The nature of electrical current Now consider the charges in a metal conductor with an applied voltage Since the charges (+) are distributed throughout the metal conductor, they will simultaneously experience a force in the same direction when the voltage is applied (electric field established)

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8 SCI-122 Session 14 Electric Current: The nature of electrical current Now consider the charges in a

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