for Large-Scale PV Manufacturing in 2001. According to Kalejs et al. (2005), accomplishments from this program include: A 25% increase in productivity per furnace, Laser area throughput increases of 35%, and Improved wafer strength and yields with thinner wafers. In 2003, SCHOTT Solar was issued a Phase YDR subcontract for High Performance Multicrystalline Modules and Products. Research was initiated in 2006. Goals included development of a 17% efficient cell with EFG wafers and construction of a backplane interconnect cell design. SunPower SunPower, founded in 1988 and headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, is a major U.S. manufacturer of sc-Si modules. SunPower, which holds all of its manufacturing facilities in the Philippines, produced 237 MW in 2008. SunPower participated in Phase YDR of PVMaT. PowerLight, acquired by SunPower in 2006, also received three subcontracts for improvements to its PowerGuard roofing tiles. Together, the two companies received 3.4 million in DOE funds through PVMaT. In 2003, SunPower received a PVMaT subcontract for Automated Manufacturing of High-Efficiency Modules. The project was aimed at producing low-cost modules with 30-year warranties and 50% higher energy production through: Thin wafer breakage reduction with improved automated handling, Lead-free interconnects, Automated soldering, and Alternative encapsulation methods and materials. This project led to the production of the world’s highest efficiency production PV module, with a total- area efficiency of 20.1%. According to subcontract reports (Rose et al., 2008), SunPower: Used antireflective-coated cover glass to increase efficiency; Developed a lead-free interconnect system with lower risk of fatigue failure; Selected an automated soldering technique for thin, back-contact cells; and Improved manufacturing to enable the use of 150- µ m cells for cost reduction and increased efficiency. Uni-Solar (ECD) United Solar was founded in 1990 and is headquartered in Michigan. Uni-Solar is a subsidiary of ECD, and was the largest U.S. producer of a-Si in 2009, with 119 MW production. ECD received three subcontracts between 1992 and 2001 for improvement of their Continuous Roll-to-Roll a-Si Photovoltaic
Appendix B – Technology Developed under PVMaT, by Company B-9 Manufacturing Technology, amounting to $22.9 million in DOE funds (Table B-1). The first was intended to support production of a triple-junction module with 10.2% efficiency at a cost of $1.00/Wp, improve deposition techniques, and reduce material and labor costs. From 1992 to 1995, ECD successfully: Achieved production of dual-junction cells with a yield of 99.7%; Created the first roll-to-roll triple-junction, two-band-gap a-Si module, with 9.5% efficiency; Constructed a silver/zinc oxide (Ag/ZnO) back-reflector system with high subcell yield; and Constructed a low-cost deposition machine with higher throughput.
- Spring '18
- Professor Obura Oluoch
- Photovoltaics, Solar cell