Important conservation measures are Use selective insecticide which is safe to

Important conservation measures are use selective

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Important conservation measures are • Use selective insecticide which is safe to natural enemies. • Avoidance of cultural practices which are harmful to natural enemies and use favourable cultural practices • Cultivation of varieties that favour colonization of natural enemies • Providing alternate hosts for natural enemies. Preservation of inactive stages of natural enemies. • Provide pollen and nectar for adult natural enemies
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SZL 413: Integrated Pest and vector Management Lecturer: Dr. Joseph Mwangangi 41 Predators- A predator is one which catches and devours smaller or more helpless creatures by killing them in getting a single meal. It is a free living organism throughout its life , normally larger than prey and requires more than one prey to develop. Parasite: A parasite is an organism which is usually much smaller than its host and a single individual usually doesn’t kill the host. Parasite may com plete their entire life cycle (eg. Lice) or may involve several host species. Or Parasite is one, which attaches itself to the body of the other living organism either externally or internally and gets nourishment and shelter at least for a shorter period if not for the entire life cycle. Parasitoids: is an insect parasite of an arthopod, parasitic only in immature stages, destroys its host in the process of development and free living as an adult. Eg: Braconid wasps Microbial control some microbials are also used in biological control of pest. Bacteria are used in biological control strategies of pests and disease vectors. The most popular in Bacillus species especially B. thuringiensis variety israelensis and B. sphaericus which is being advocated locally for the control of mosquitoes. Fungi are other microbial agents used in biological control and have shown some success in the control of pest particularly insects. Most of the entomopathogenic fungi infect their hosts by penetration of the cuticle by producing cuticle digesting enzymes ( Proteases , lipases, chitinases).These entomopathogenic fungi such as Beaverai bassiana and Metarhizium species has been used against aphids, mosquitoes, beetles and other pests Plants may act as biological control agents by regulating pest through release of olfactory inhibitors/odours that confuse or deter pests or they may mask crops that are preferred by the pests. Advantages of Biological control i. Control of the insect is achieved in a wide area. ii. The pest is hunted out and thus complete control over a large area is possible. iii. Biological agent survives as long as the pest is prevalent and hence control is effective over longer periods. iv. Though the initial cost is more it will be cheaper in a long run since after, few years of field, release, when it got established there may not be any necessity to propagate it further.
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  • Summer '19
  • Microeconomics, Head louse, Flea, Pediculosis, Body louse, Vector Management, Dr. Joseph Mwangangi

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