Secretary of the Interior usually comes from the West ii Secretary of

Secretary of the interior usually comes from the west

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i. Secretary of the Interior usually comes from the Westii. Secretary of Agriculture usually comes from the Midwestiii. Secretary of HUD usually comes from a big citye. Ethnic and gender balance is importantf. Professional experience is considered important4. Some presidents have leaned more heavily on their cabinets for advice than othersa. Kennedy found cabinet meetings a waste of timeb. Some presidents prefer other groups of advisorsi. Andrew Jackson’s “Kitchen Cabinet”ii. FDR’s “Brain Trust”IV. Independent AgenciesA. Congress began assigning more executive functions to independent agencies in 18801. Some of these remain independent because they don’t fall within any of the categories of departmental responsibility
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2. Some of these remain independent to insulate them from political manipulation3. Some are independent largely by accident4. Some are independent because of the sensitive natures of their functionsB. Independent Agencies are just as important as Executive Departments1. Several of them administer programs similar to those of Cabinet departments (i.e. NASA and Transportation or Defense)2. The Social Security Administration has a larger budget than all but one of the Departments (HHS)3. The General Services Administration (GSA) oversees the construction, purchase, or operation of buildings and supplies, etc.4. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the hiring agency for nearly all other federal agenciesC. Independent Agencies can be divided into three main groups1. Independent Executive Agenciesa. Most independent agencies fall into this categoryb. The most important distinction between executive agencies and the fifteen executive departments is that the former lack cabinet status2. Independent Regulatory Commissionsa. These exist largely beyond any presidential direction or controlb. These exist to regulate important aspects of the nation’s economyc. There are ten independent regulatory commissionsi. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Systemii. Federal Trade Commissioniii. Securities and Exchange Commissioniv. Federal Communications Commissionv. National Labor Relations Boardvi. Federal Maritime Commissionvii. Consumer Product Safety Commissionviii. Nuclear Regulatory Commissionix. Commodity Futures Trading Commissionx. Federal Energy Regulatory Commissiond. Even though the President appoints members of these commissions, Congress found several ways to ensure their independencei. Members serve for a term of years that is usually longer than a president’s termii. No more than a majority of each board may come from either partyiii. Members’ terms are staggered so that no more than one vacancy may occur in a yeariv. Members of five of these commissions can be dismissed by the president only under restricted circumstancese. Regulatory commissions are executive, but also quasi-legislative and quasi-judiciali. Congress has assigned them certain tasks, and they create and enforce rules necessary to accomplish those tasks
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