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conducted to determine how each department perceives the VUMC attitudes toward safety practices and patient safety issues. Then, each department is reviewed to find builtin errors that are system problems and to evaluate how the team communicates and deals with conflict. After the training, medical supervisors provide observation, coaching, and feedback. Checklists are provided for certain procedures, such as patient handoffs, medication administration, and briefing and debriefing sessions. These checklists help participants use the strategies emphasized in training to improve patient safety andthe quality of patient care. Patients also help ensure safety. VUMC has created a video that patients are asked to watch when they are admitted to the hospital. The video emphasizes the importance of asking questions about medications and medical procedures.Page 196TABLE 5.4 Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of TrainingCharacteristic ExampleSupervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquiredin training.Newly trained managers discuss how to apply their training on the job with their supervisors and other managers.Task cues: Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him or her to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training.The job of a newly trained manager is designed in such a way as to allow him or her to use the skills taught in training.Feedback consequences: Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training.Supervisors notice newly trained managers who use their training.Lack of punishment: Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired intraining.
When newly trained managers fail to use their training, they are not reprimanded.Extrinsic reinforcement consequences: Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training.Newly trained managers who successfully use their training will receive a salary increase.Intrinsic reinforcement consequences: Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training.Supervisors and other managers appreciate newly trained managers who perform their job as taught in training.Source: Adapted from J. B. Tracey, S. I. Tannenbaum, and M. J. Kavanagh, “Applying Trained Skills on the Job: The Importance of the Work Environment,” Journal of Applied Psychology 80 (1995): 235–52; E. Holton, “What’s Really Wrong: Diagnosis for Learning Transfer System Change,” in Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations, ed. E. Holton and T. Baldwin (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003): 59–79.Manager SupportManager support refers to the degree to which trainees’ managers (1) emphasize the importance of attending training programs and (2) stress the application of training content to the job. Managers can communicate expectations to trainees as well as provide the encouragement and resources needed to apply training on the job. One company asked trainees and their bosses to prepare and send memos to