(vii). The principle of healthy working environment. It states that the work environment should be worker friendly so as to achieve quality output. (viii) The principle of incentives It states that the organization should their employees reasonable salaries. Advantages of the theory (i). Uniformity It gave birth to standardization of tools, working methods e.t.c which led to uniformity. (ii). Incentives Because of incentives, the workers performance increased greatly. (iii). Wastage 9
It reduced the level of wastage in production process through scientific selection and training. (iv). It puts emphasis on better utilization of available organization's resources. (v). The system provides for the satisfaction of the needs of the customers by providing high quality product/services at lower prices. (vi). It puts emphasis on good harmonious relationships between workers and management. (vii). It puts emphasis on proper selection, training and promotion of employees. (viii). It has led to specialization which in turn led to increased productivity and job satisfaction. Disadvantages of the theory 1. It puts a lot of emphasis on employee incentives but less on compensation in an event of an accident. 2. It has overlooked the human desire for job satisfaction. 3. It assumes the social needs of workers such as forming and joining a trade union, welfare society e.t.c 4. The techniques of scientific management dehumanize the workers by making them to work like mindless machines. 5. It rules out any bargaining about wages by emphasizing on the manager setting salaries and wages. 6. It gives too much power to managers which cause conflict and resistance. 3.2 MODERN/ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY OF MANAGEMENT. It was formulated by H. Fayol, who said that managers who follow general principles of management and good management practices achieve the highest productivity. 10
Principles of Management 1. Principle of division of labour According to it, when division of labor is allowed, it leads to specialization of workers which further leads to increased productivity and job satisfaction. 2. The principle of authority and responsibility It states that for a manager to get work done in his/her development, she/he must adequately be authorized to be able to control the activities of the development. The manager is equally held responsible and answerable to the proper use of the authority. 3. The principle of discipline It states that discipline is at the very core of administration and that managers should be disciplined first before they can think of disciplining the subordinate. 4. The principle of unity of command It states that commands should be well planned and thought out. Subordinate should not take instructions from more than one because they will be confused and frustrated.
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