oxaloacetate cannot pass through the mitochondria membranes it must be first

Oxaloacetate cannot pass through the mitochondria

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oxaloacetate cannot pass through the mitochondria membranes it must be first converted into malate by malate dehydrogenase. Malate can then cross the mitochondria membrane into the cytoplasm where it is then converted back into oxaloacetate with another malate dehydrogenase. Lastly, oxaloacetate is converted into PEP via PEP carboxykinase. The next several steps are exactly the same as glycolysis only the process is in reverse. 2. The second step that differs from glycolysis is the conversion of fructose- 1,6-bP to fructose-6-P with the use of the enzyme fructose-1,6- phosphatase. The conversion of fructose-6-P to glucose-6-P uses the same enzyme as glycolysis, phosphoglucoisomerase. 3. The last step that differs from glycolysis is the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose with the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. This enzyme is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. d. Glycogenesis: e. Lipolysis: 2. Describe the metabolic response to: a. Well-fed state: increased glucose, increased insulin, decreased glucagon, increase cortisol and epinephrine b. Fasting between meals: decreased glucose, decreased insulin, decreased entry of glucose, increase in cortisol, epinephrine and glucagon c. Starvation for three days : decreased glucose, decreased insulin, decreased uptake of glucose, increase in cortisol, epinephrine and glucagon
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3. Specify the hormones involved in glucose regulation by name, site of origin, and ACTION (TABLE 7.2 Pg. 16 COURSE MANUAL) Insulin, secreted by B cells of pancreas, stimulates hyperglycemia, glucose decreases, FFA decreases Glucagon, secreted by a-cells of pancreas, stimulates hypoglycemia, glucose increases, FFA increases Epinephrine secreted by adrenal medulla (inhibits insulin), stimulates stress and exercise, glucose increases, FFA increases Cortisol, secreted by adrenal cortex, stimulates hypoglycemia, glucose increases, FFA increases Growth hormone, secreted by anterior pituitary, stimulates deep sleep, stress, fasting, exercise, amino acid, hypoglycemia, glucose increases, FFA increases Thyroxine, secreted by the thyroid, stimulates anxiety and stress, glucose increases, FFA increases 4. An 80-year-old patient was admitted to hospital with the following laboratory tests. Test Result Reference Na 158 135 - 145 mmol/L K 4.6 3.5 - 5.0 mmol/L Cl 118 93 - 108 mmol/L HCO 3 18 21- 28 mmol/L Urea 16.5 3.0 - 8.9 mmol/L Glucose 43 3.6 - 6.1 mmol/L Osmolality 393 281- 297 mmol/kg Ketones negative negative a. Explain the Na results b. Calculate the serum osmolality and explain the significance of the result. c. Explain the HCO3 result d. What is the likely diagnosis? The Na results signify that the patient has hypernatremia. It is a condition where the serum sodium level is increased and loss of body water. The symptoms include restlessness and fatigue. Serum osmolality helps to know the balance between the electrolyte and water level in
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the body. The serum osmolality level is 393mmol/kg. electrolyte such as serum sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and blood glucose can cause increased serum osmolality level.
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