Has a higher gluten content and is ideal for yeast

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Has a higher gluten content and is ideal for yeast breads and hard rolls that require elastic gluten h. semolina flour: Made from hard winter durum wheat. Highest protein content (9-18%) and is best for pasta products. i. all-purpose flour: less protein than bread flour (averages about 11%). AP is a blend of hard and soft wheat flours that can be used for all purposes. j. pastry flour: cream-colored flour derived from soft wheat with short to medium patents. Lower protein content of about 9% makes it ideal for pastries, some cookies, sweet yeast doughs, biscuits, and muffins k. cake flour: Extra-short patent wheat with a lower protein content of only 8%, resulting in less gluten being formed which gives cakes a fine grain, delicate structure, and velvety texture. Treated with chlorine gas which lowers the pH from about 6.0 to 5.0 and improves baking quality l. graham flour: Produced by combining finely ground endosperm and coarsely ground germ and bran m. baking soda: white chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate n. baking powder: chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acids, and an innert filler such as cornstarch o. starter: culture of microorganisms, usually bacteria and/or yeasts, used in the production of certain foods such as sourdough bread, cheese, and alcoholic beverages p. bleached flour: flour that has been treated with a lipophilic bleach to remove fat soluble pigments found in the endosperm of unbleached flour q. self-rising flour: AP flour with the leavening agent and salt already added r. instant flour: mixes easily w/ water, readily gelatinizing without lumps. Ideal for powdered soups, sauces, and gravies. Created by passing flour through jets of steam, which wet it and allow it to stick together in very small particles. s. proof: increase volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation
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t. batter: flour mixture that contains more water than a dough and whose consistency ranges from pourable to sticky u. dough: flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded v. score: use a sharp knife or “lame” blade to create ¼ to ½ inch deep slashes on the risen dough’s top surface just prior to baking w. oven spring: quick expansion of dough during the first 10 mins of baking, caused by expanding gases x. rope: sticky, moist texture of breads resulting from contamination by Baciullus mesentericus bacteria y. emulsifiers: Compound that possesses both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties so that it disperses in either water or oil. Helps disperse fat ingredients more evenly through flour mixture, helping to improve texture and crumb
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich
  • Flour, Graham flour

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