New england puritanism owed its religious roots to

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New England Puritanism owed its religious roots to the Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century. During most of the seventeenth century, New Netherland was a Dutch colony whose land was discovered in explorations made by Henry Hudson in 1609. Roger Williams was the first Massachusetts settler to lead a Puritan exodus to New York. Anne Hutchinson's emphasis on the “covenant of grace” stirred religious controversy in early Massachusetts because it was feared she was disrupting the good order of the colony. The English monarchs James I and Charles I enforced conformity to the Church of England. The migration to Puritan New England included a greater number of complete family units than most groups of immigrants in American history. When the English assumed control of New Netherland, they continued the Dutch policy of religious toleration because the heterogeneity of New Netherland made imposing a uniform religion not only difficult but nearly impossible. The New England town meeting brought together a town's inhabitants and freemen in an exercise of voting and popular political participation that was unprecedented elsewhere during the seventeenth century. English Puritans rejected Catholic rituals and instead emphasized introspection and a personal relationship with God. Puritan communities in the first half of the seventeenth century could be characterized by a high degree of conformity in community members' views on morality, order, and propriety. Widespread political participation of males in New England town meetings led to a reinforcement of community conformity. Sixteenth-century English Puritanism
Chapt 4 was a set of broadly interpreted ideas and religious principles held by those seeking to purify the Church of England and to remove from it what they considered the offensive features of Catholicism. The Halfway Covenant was a measure instituted by Puritan leaders in 1662 allowing the unconverted children of visible saints to become halfway church members, a measure meant to keep communities as godly as possible.

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