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engaging main Confederate forces. Although this strategy resulted in many casualties, it also ground the Confederate forces down. Major battles of this nature included Antietam and Gettysburg. Nearly everything Gen. Grant did contributed to this strategy. Late in the war, General Sherman of the Union developed a new strategy: Total War. The Carolinas and Georgia was "Shermanized" by burning areas (such as Atlanta) and destroying important transportation routes. African-American involvement was also used by the Union armies. 180,000 African Americans enlisted in Union forces. The Emancipation Proclamation added moral cause to the war and attracted many blacks to join the war effort. Previously, African Americans couldn't join Union forces.The CSA realised early on that additional support was needed. Because of states' rights, the entire South needed to be defended at once, instead of just picking easy battles. The CSA tried to gain international recognition, especially from Great Britain. However, Confederate defeats by the Union diminished any hope of foreign intervention. Besides, Britain could get its cotton from slightly more expensive sources, such as Egypt. The South also used heavy offense. The CSA simply didn't wait for Federal forces to attack or for easy battles. The CSA's economy would be crushed by blockade, so blockade running was also a key element in Confederatestrategy. Beating the blockade was also tried. For example, the Merrimack ironclad ship destroyed many blockading Union ships. Lastly, the CSA tried desperately to get African -American forces in the last month of the war. This effort proved futile, as the war was almost over.3) Why was Lincoln so slow to declare the Civil War as a fight against slavery? Was he wise to move slowly, or could an early Emancipation Proclamation have undermined the Union Cause?Lincoln at first was hesitant to free the slaves for fear that his allies might not support him. A few slave states remained in the Union and the president needed these states not to defect in the heat of fighting. These states included Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia and Missouri. Lincoln decided to free slaves in the slave states to demoralize the South and strengthen the cause for the North. He was a brilliant strategist in choosing the path. Also, by waiting, he could put it out at a time when the Union was winning, so it sounded convincing, rather than "We need the slaves to rise up against their masters because we can't win the war."4) What role did African-Americans, both slave and free, play in the Civil War?Many African-Americans, both slave and free, joined the war effort. The Union saw the benefits of increased forces, and so began enlisting blacks in 1863, in the year of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Confederate forces used slave labor to construct buildings and to supply forces with supplies. Slave labor provided much food.