Why should states ratify 1 to demonstrate commitment

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Why Should States Ratify: 1) To demonstrate commitment to democracy and political liberalization 2) For benefits such as financial assistance and/or access to international organizations 3) To constrain the practices of human rights in other states Why Do States Not Comply Even if they Ratified: 1) Anarchy and Self-Help: States can do whatever they want and take necessary action to achieve their interests and there is no overarching authority that can do anything 2) “Expressive Value” and hope for the best: You can consider this as a publicity stunt where States claim that they support and agree with their ideals and beliefs, and hope that if their behavior falls short of it, they won’t get caught doing so. Enforcement - Periodic reports by governments (self reporting) - Reports on reports (states can only report on other states if they are given permission) - circumscribed actions (can’t take action against third party sources like NGOs) Optional protocol CAT (OP-CAT) Regular visits by international human rights organizations which periodically go in and interview the state. OP-CAT makes independent mutual sources of information available. (entry into force: 2006, signatories: 75, parties: 80 in 2015) In short: It is an optional policy for countries to be investigated
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