For example it supports the external ear elastic

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For example, it supports the external ear. (Elastic cartilage is not illustrated in Figure 3.19.) Dense Connective Tissue Dense connective tissue, also called dense fi- brous tissue, has collagen fibers as its main matrix element (Figure 3.19d). Crowded between the col- lagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts (fiber-forming cells) that manufacture the building blocks of the fibers. Dense connective tissue forms strong, rope- like structures such as tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones; liga- ments connect bones to bones at joints. Ligaments are more stretchy and contain more elastic fibers than tendons. Dense connective tissue also makes up the lower layers of the skin (dermis), where it is arranged in sheets. Loose Connective Tissue Relatively speaking, the loose connective tissues are softer and have more cells and fewer fibers than any other connective tissue type except blood. Chapter 3: Cells and Tissues 91
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92 Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology FIGURE 3.19 Connective tissues and their common body locations. ( e, f, and g are subclasses of loose connective tissues.) (c) Diagram: Fibrocartilage Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc (200x). Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from the trachea (300x). Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional view of ground bone (70x). (a) Diagram: Bone (b) Diagram: Hyaline cartilage Bone cells in lacunae Central canal Lacunae Lamella Chondrocyte in lacuna Chondrocyte in lacuna Collagen fiber Matrix Lacunae Collagen fibers Chondro- cites in lacunae Cartilage cell
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Chapter 3: Cells and Tissues 93 Photomicrograph: Dense fibrous connective tissue from a tendon (1000x). Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a soft packaging tissue of the body (400x). Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin (600x). Collagen fibres Nuclei of fibroblasts Elastic fibers Collagen fibres Fibroblast nuclei Vacuole containing fat droplet Nuclei of fat cells (e) Diagram: Areolar (f) Diagram: Adipose (d) Diagram: Dense fibrous Tendon Fibers of matrix Nuclei of fibroblasts Lamina propria Ligament Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts Mucosa epithelium Nuclei of fat cells Vacuole containing fat droplet ( Continues on page 94 )
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94 Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Areolar Tissue Areolar (ah-re o-lar) tissue, the most widely distributed connective tissue variety in the body, is a soft, pliable, “cobwebby” tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps (Figure 3.19e). It functions as a universal packing tissue and connective tissue “glue” because it helps to hold the internal organs together and in their proper positions. A soft layer of areolar connective tissue called the lamina propria (lah mı˘-nah pro pre-ah) underlies all mucous membranes. Its fluid matrix contains all types of fibers, which form a loose network. In fact, when viewed through a microscope, most of the matrix appears to be empty space, which explains the name of this tis- FIGURE 3.19 ( continued ) Connective tissues and their common body locations.
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