For example the US Marshals Service provides security for federal courthouses

For example the us marshals service provides security

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agencies either work in or work closely with the courts. For example, the U.S. Marshals Service provides security forfederal courthouses and judges. Finally, some other federal agencies routinely adjudicate disputes arising fromadministrative law in the federal courts.Reshaping the Judiciary?Shortly after Franklin Roosevelt was elected to the presidency in 1936, he unleashed a proposal called the JudiciaryReorganization Bill of 1937. In it, he called for presidential authority to appoint an additional Supreme Court justice tothe U.S. Supreme Court for every sitting justice who was over 70 1⁄2 years of age, up to a maximum of six newjustices. Roosevelt's intentions were to "stack" the Supreme Court such that it would uphold important New Dealmeasures. His plan eventually failed when it was defeated in the Senate, but it nevertheless signaled that thepresident could restructure the judiciary. After all, the Constitution is silent on the appropriate number of SupremeCourt justices.Read about the chinese system on page 38 in your book. How is the chinese system different from ours? What arethe main criticisms on the chinese system? What are the main criticisms on the U.S. system?Learning Objective 3How do higher courts exercise control over lower courts? How does the interpretation ofhigher-court decisions by the lower courts shape such controls?There is a distinct hierarchy to the court system at both the federal and state levels. Higher courtshave considerable influence over lower courts due to this hierarchical structure; at the same time,lower courts do not necessarily "follow the rules" to the letter and have developed various means tocope with influential decisions from the higher courts. Courts are subject to direct control fromhigher-court officials, just as they are subject to direct control from the legislative branch. Highercourts, including the judges in higher courts, exert direct control over the lower courts in two ways:
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1/13/2019Module 1 Lesson15/17jurisdictional authority and rule setting. Higher courts also seek to influence lower-court judges'decisions, but as we will see, this is not always possible.Jurisdictional AuthorityRecall that hierarchical jurisdiction referred to the organization of courts within a distinct state (orfederal) system. This means the higher courts have direct control over the lower courts. Related tothis was geographical jurisdiction, referring to the organization of courts within distinct geographicareas; for example, a state supreme court has jurisdiction over the other state courts within itsboundaries. Jurisdictional authority thus refers to the authority of higher courts to issue decisionsthat are binding on the lower courts within their jurisdiction. For example, an appellate court mayreverse a lower court's decision (more on this process in Chapter 14). In an ideal world, lower courtswould follow higher courts' decisions to the letter, implementing them without any resistance or
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