called spermatogonia and the cells of a cancerous tumour Males are capable of

Called spermatogonia and the cells of a cancerous

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called spermatogonia, and the cells of a cancerous tumour - Males are capable of producing many sperm cells from the onset of puberty into old age, but once sperm cells are formed, they lose the ability to divide further - Cancer cells divide at such as accelerated rate that the genes cannot regulate the proliferation and cannot direct the cells toward specialization - It would appear that the more specialized a cell is, the less able it is to undergo mitosis - The fertilized egg cell is not a specialised cell - Differentiation begins to occur only after its third division, which results in either cells - Interestingly, it is at the point where differentiation begins that the biological clock within the cell is turned on Summary of The Cell Cycle - Cell division produces new cells for cell growth and for the replacement of worn-out cells inthe body - CEll division involves a series of steps that produce two genetically identical daughter cells - Two divisions occur during cell division: nuclear division (mitosis) and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) - During interphase, genetic material is replicated - Cells seem able to divide on a finite number of times - Cells lose the ability to divide as they specialize 17.2 Applications of the Cell Cycle Cloning
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- Cloning is the process of chroming identical offspring from a single cell or tissue in the parent organ - A clone originates from a single parent cell, and both the clone and parent have identical (or nearly identical) nuclear DNA - Although some clones show accidental changes genetic information, cloning does not result in the variation of traits would occur with the combination of male and female sex cells - Cloning is therefore considered a form of asexual reproduction Cloning in Nature - Some species, such as hydra reproduce by undergoing mitosis to produce buds with identical DNA to the larger parent cell - The smaller plantlets on arunner of a strawberry plant are identical clones of the larger parent plant - In animals, offspring with an identical genetic makeup are sometimes produced when a single fertilized egg undergoes mitosis and the resulting early embryo (called a zygote) then splits in two - This results in identical twins - They are also called monozygotic twins, since they formed from a single zygote - Fraternal twins are formed when two different eggs are fertilized separately - They are also known as dizygotic twins - Fraternals twins are no more genetically similar than non-twin siblings
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Plant Cloning Technology - Fredrick Stewart created great excitement in the scientific world when he revealed that he had produced a plant from a single carrot cell - Today, this technique is commonly called cloning - Many commercially important plant species, including orchids, are now produced from clones - Unlike plants that arise from sexual reproduction, cloned plants are identical to their parents - This allows production of strains of plants with predictable characteristics - Not all plant species can be cloned, however -
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