Key terms hellenization the historical spread of

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Key terms: Hellenization - the historical spread of ancient Greek culture and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence Sarissa - 18 ft spear used by the macedonians that allowed them to pin enemy infantry while cavalry attacked from the sides Bactria - Pambasileus - theoretical individual whose virtue or excellence is so superior to others that it justifies kingship rather than democracy or oligarchy Lecture #9 - The Roman Monarchy and Republic Lecture Chronology: 753-509 BCE - Roman Monarchy 509-27 BCE - Roman Republic 264-146 BCE - Punic Wars 133,122 BCE - Agrarian reforms of the Gracchi 88-87 BCE - Civil War between Marius and Sulla 60-53 BCE - First Triumvirate 44 BCE - Julius Caesar Assassinated 43-33 BCE - Second Triumvirate 31 BCE - Battle of Actium Lecture Questions: (GAUCHOSPACE) 1) What factors played a role in Roman Expansion? 2) How did Roman expansion lead to further problems during the late Republic? 3) What role did “strong men” play in the problems of the late republic? 753 BCE Rome was founded (Story they said) - Carthage is a phoenician colony
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- Phoenicians inherited from Canaanites Roman Origins - A Diverse People? - Aeneas ( Virgils Aeneid, 1st BCE) (Trojan Prince) - Departed troy (Ancestor of early Roman Kings) - Romulus and Remus (Livy’s Roman History, 1st c. BCE) - Twins, Sons of Roman God Mars(God of War), Mars slept with vestal virgin (Elite young women who becomes priestess) - Cast out to die, saved by a she-wolf who raises them - Romulus killed Remus - Abduction of the Sabine Women - Roman men under Romulus; steal the women from Sabines - Women accept fate and they are first roman wifes - Shows early mixing btwn outsiders and romans Historical Rome - 10th century = huts on the hills (7 hills) Important Neighbors - Magna Graecia - (Great Greece) - Things Romans Borrowed: Religion, political systems and citizenship, literature (later) - Etruscans (Not indo- European unlike most people on italian peninsula; could be from greece or western anatolia) - Things Romans Borrowed: Urban Planning, divination (animal), fasces, writing, proto-gladiatorial fighting, etc - Far more advanced that Romans in this time - Fasces - represents king's ability to inflict capital punishment, represents unity in many dif. Peoples Roman Kingdom (753-509 BCE) - 7 Kings (3 were Estruscan) - Kings were in charge of Military, Judicial, Legislative authority - Chief Priest (Pontifex Maximus) - Infrastructure and Institutions - First Census Roman Values - Patria potestas ( “power of the father” ) - Mos maiorum (“ancestral custom”) - Romanitas (“Romanness”) - manliness in roman sense End of the Monarchy - Sextus Tarquinius and Lucretia - Kills herself and has Sextus killed - Junius Brutus kills Sextus - Great Fear of Kingship Roman Republic (509-ca. 30 BCE) - Res privata (“private thing”)
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- Res publica (“public thing”) - Division of Powers - 2 consuls (annual 1 year terms) - Senate (~100-300 elders) - Foreign Affairs - Popular assemblies - Responsible for voting people into the Offices - Early on assemblies were the ones that voted for or against war Conflict of the orders in the early republic -
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Christopher Reinemann
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