Due to DNA matching many cases are being reopened for reasons of miscarriage of justice. Activist and defense attorneys are reopening these cases. Prosecutors in Japan receive incentives for guilty verdicts, and they participate in misconduct within the system in order to win a case. Japan does not use juries instead they use a panel of judges to decide a guilty or not guilty verdict. In 2009 regular civilians became judges in certain cases because the government allowed it (Extractor, Few Fans; Japan’s Criminal Justice System, 2015). Japan uses an intelligent agency called “Koancho” which is the Public Security Investigation Agency of the Ministry of Justice (PSIA). This agency handles national security matters inside and out of the country. It deals with activities that are not publicized such as counterespionage. It was created in 1952 to control and investigate internal subversion. It focuses on the Japan Communist party as well. They are responsible for surveillance on Korean residence. They have authority through the Subversive Activities Prevention Law, but they do not have the power to search a house or seize evidence. In 1996 the Japanese government under the administrative reform sent the PSIA to foreign countries to help strengthen the Japanese intelligence overseas (Pike, 2009). Evaluate the Japanese criminal justice system and compare it to the United States. The United States is mostly common law and Japan is mostly civil law. Codified law in the U.S. is found at all levels of jurisdiction and may be able to control an outcome of a dispute whereas Japan case law precedent offers guidance that is non-binding and can be persuasive in some cases that can conflict with code. The evolution is interesting between the two countries. English legal tradition was inherited by the United States legal system and Japan uses a mixture of influences. German civil code was inherited by Japan in the 1800’s along with French civil code. However, after the second world war Japan also borrowed from the American laws and criminal procedures, the constitution, corporate laws, and labor laws. More recently Japan has updated their legal system by revising codes like bankruptcy and civil procedures (Syam, 2013).
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