1016 Smoking and Cancer Risk China has highest rate of smokers Tobacco use is a

1016 smoking and cancer risk china has highest rate

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Burkitt’s, non-Burkitt’s, and lymphoblastic lymphoma. 10/16 Smoking and Cancer Risk - China has highest rate of smokers - Tobacco use is a risk factor of 6/8 of the world’s leading death causes Health Risks from Smoking - Spouses of smokers have increased risk of lung cancer - Chronic diseases: stroke, blindness, gum infection - Aortic rupture, heart disease, pneumonia - Hardening of arteries, asthma
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- reduced fertility, hip fracture - Every 10 seconds someone dies of tobacco related causes - Tobacco products are the only legal consumer products that can be LETHAL when used exactly as the manufacturer intends Facts About Addiction to Nicotine - Within 8 sec. of first-ever puff, nicotine arrives at brain's reward pathways - nicotine gains direct and indirect control over the flow of more than 200 neurochemicals Lung Cancer Facts and Figures - ANYONE can get lung cancer. not just smokers - Lung cancer is rarely detected early on - Kills more than breast cancer, prostate, colorectal cancer - No screening test for lung cancer, making it so deadly Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) - Most common lung cancer (85%) - Adenocarcinoma usually develops on the outer boundaries of the lungs and is more commonly found in women than in men (most common) - Squamous cell carcinoma: c ommonly starts in the bronchi and may not spread as rapidly as other lung cancers - Large cell carcinoma : lung tumor that cannot be classified. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung - Specifically oat cell carcinoma - can create its own hormones, which alter body chemistry. - small cell carcinoma of the lung is the most aggressive cancer - median survival from diagnosis of only 2 to 4 months Mutations of p53 and K-ras in Lung Cancer - Mutations of the p53 are found in lung tumors, highest rate for any cancer - P53 acts as a checkpoint into the Synthesis (S) and Mitosis (M) Phases - Mutations in K-ras gene result in a K-ras protein that is essentially stuck in an “on” position - Overactivity causes tumor development Cigarette Tar - Tar in cigarettes also paralyses the cilia, the small hairs which protect and clean the lungs - The last puff can contain more than twice as much tar as the first puff 10/18 Breast Cancer: Hormones & Genes Visual signs of breast cancer: changes in skin texture, indentation of nipple, discharge, fullness or puckering African american and white women have higher incidence rate, but black women have highest mortality rate Diseases: cysts, abscesses
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Risk Factors - Family history of breast or ovarian cancer - Older age - Breast density - Long menstrual history - Nulliparity (not having children) - Obesity, alcohol Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations - Age 40: talk to doctor, can begin screening - Age 45: yearly mammograms - Age 55: mammograms every other year Invasive Breast Cancer - Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): c ancer cells penetrates the wall of a milk duct - Cancer cells enter lymphatic vessels and travel to other sites of body - Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Accounts for 10 - 15% Noninvasive Breast Cancer - Lobular Carcinoma in Situ: cancer hasn’t broken through the duct walls, hasn’t spread Hormones -
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