2. Describe the symptoms and treatment regimen for someone infected with Clostridium
Clostridium perfringens (also known as Gas gangrene) presents with muscle
necrosis, swelling of infected areas, fever and intense gas production. Treatment entails
removal of all infected tissue, often resulting in amputation of the affected areas, in
conjunction with heavy antibiotic therapies.
3. Why does the alpha toxin (perfringolysin) produced during an infection of gas gangrene cause cell
The toxin perforates the membrane. It forms pores in the plasma membrane of host
cells resulting in uncontrolled ion fluxes and eventually cell lysis and death.
1. The ________ surrounds the capsid of some viruses.
2. True or False. You would expect to see a viral envelope on a virus infecting a plant cell.
overwhelming majority of animal viruses are enveloped whereas the majority of plant or
bacteria-infecting viruses are not.
3. Rank the following viruses based on their size from largest to smallest:
Variolavirus (~200nm) > Orthomyxovirus (100-150nm) > Poliovirus (~30nm)
1. While traveling abroad, should you be worried about coming into contact with either the Variola
major or Variola minor viruses?
No. Both viruses are variants of smallpox and were eradicated in
1977. You would not need to worry about coming into contact with the virus.
2. What small (~30nm) single-stranded, non-enveloped RNA virus causes temporary or permanent
paralysis by infiltrating (infecting) motor neurons within the spinal cord, brain stem or motor cortex?