2 the number of phases 3 vs 4 andor the number of

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2. The number of phases (3 vs. 4) and/or the number of times a loop passes through a previous phase (once vs. multiple times) is acceptable provided what happens? Either deviation is acceptable in practice provided the resulting gradient contains within it the growth of individual colonies—if not, the experiment must be repeated. 3. True or False. Pathogenic strains of bacteria tend to grow slower than normal non-pathogenic bacterial strains. False. Pathogenic strains of bacteria tend to grow faster than non-pathogenic strains at 37°C, which is why researchers may set incubators at 25°C to restrict its growth. 1. True or False. Although there is no cure for tetanus, it can be prevented through vaccination. True. There is no cure for tetanus. However, tetanus is entirely preventable through vaccination.
2. Describe the symptoms and treatment regimen for someone infected with Clostridium perfringens. Clostridium perfringens (also known as Gas gangrene) presents with muscle necrosis, swelling of infected areas, fever and intense gas production. Treatment entails removal of all infected tissue, often resulting in amputation of the affected areas, in conjunction with heavy antibiotic therapies. 3. Why does the alpha toxin (perfringolysin) produced during an infection of gas gangrene cause cell death? The toxin perforates the membrane. It forms pores in the plasma membrane of host cells resulting in uncontrolled ion fluxes and eventually cell lysis and death. 1. The ________ surrounds the capsid of some viruses. Envelope. 2. True or False. You would expect to see a viral envelope on a virus infecting a plant cell. False. The overwhelming majority of animal viruses are enveloped whereas the majority of plant or bacteria-infecting viruses are not. 3. Rank the following viruses based on their size from largest to smallest: Orthomyxovirus Poliovirus Variolavirus Variolavirus (~200nm) > Orthomyxovirus (100-150nm) > Poliovirus (~30nm) 1. While traveling abroad, should you be worried about coming into contact with either the Variola major or Variola minor viruses? No. Both viruses are variants of smallpox and were eradicated in 1977. You would not need to worry about coming into contact with the virus. 2. What small (~30nm) single-stranded, non-enveloped RNA virus causes temporary or permanent paralysis by infiltrating (infecting) motor neurons within the spinal cord, brain stem or motor cortex?
4. Which subtype of Influenza is the most virulent?

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