PSYCH
Lecture 2 - mechanisms 2017.pdf

Epigenetic changes germ line epigenetic inheritance

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epigenetic changes
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Germ line epigenetic inheritance: micro RNA
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Design: does father’s diet change gene expression in offspring? Carone et al 2010, Cell 143: 1084-96. Gene expression Offspring Dietary intervention
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Expression of genes in the cholesterol synthesis pathway are influenced by father’s diet Carone et al 2010, Cell 143: 1084-96. Changes in methylation in region of lipid regulating transcription factor (PPARa)
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Father’s diet influences liver cholesterol levels in offspring Carone et al 2010, Cell 143: 1084-96. Punchline: the diet eaten by adult males influenced cholesterol levels in their offspring
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Dias & Ressler (2014) Nature Neuroscience , 17(1), 89-96.
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Shock conditioning to an odor is inherited by at least 2 generations of offspring image:
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Maternal separation at day 1-14 in mice: Franklin et al (2010) Biol Psychiatry 68:408 separation F 1 males F 2 females
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Maternal separation at day 1-14 in mice: Franklin et al (2010) Biol Psychiatry 68:408 F 1 adults Methylation (sperm) F 3 grandoffspring behavior Unpredictable maternal separation in F 1 males CB gene Punchline: early rearing stress in newborn males influenced behavior in their grandoffspring
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Paternal stress Æ offspring HPA
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Evidence that sperm miRNA is inheritance pathway Injection of miRNA from exposed animals’ sperm into unexposed sperm Rodgers et al (2015) Proc Nat Acad Sci
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Germ line epigenetic inheritance: micro RNA
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Summary: implications of epigenetics Genes rarely “determine” traits in a straight-forward fashion Phenotypes must grow and develop This involves modifications in patterns of gene expression which are sensitive to environments – one’s own and recent ancestors’
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Summary: implications of epigenetics Genes rarely “determine” traits in a straight-forward fashion Phenotypes must grow and develop This involves modifications in patterns of gene expression which are sensitive to environments – one’s own and recent ancestors’ Why do bodies have this developmental sensitivity to the environment?
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Part III: Adaptability as a unifying principle in biology
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Adaptation Bodies and minds are designed to cope with and adjust to dynamic social and physical environments. Adaptive processes serve as the interface between the body and environment.
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Minute-to-minute changes in dietary intake
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Seasonal changes in nutritional status in rural Gambian women Year Weight (kg) Prentice and Cole (1994), Proc Nutr Soc , 53: 509-519
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