50%(2)1 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 8 - 11 out of 33 pages.
migrate over fatty streakFibrous plaques may calcify, protrude into lumen/ create fissuresStable- Plaque= Thick fibrous cap Unstable plaque= think fibrous cap, thick lipid pool, prone to ruptureoAll Equal narrows the vessel of the lumen= obstruction of blood flow can produce symptoms (angina, intermittent claudication) Complicated Lesion oPlaques are unstable and can rupture prior tp occlusion oRupture is caused by an immune response to endothelial injury/ tissue Rupture exposes the underlying tissue, causes platelet adhesion, initiate clotting cascade, and rapid thrombus formation Thrombus formation can occlude which results in ischemia and infarction oHead/neck assessment findingsoStable vs. unstable plaqueStable:Can’t rupture, thick fibrous cap Unstable:Thin fibrous cap, prone to rupture oCholesterolDifferentiate LDL, HDL, triglyceridesHDL- good, want it high LDL- bad, gives plaques, Triglycerides- fatty acids, main component to make fat Identify optimal levelsoUnderstanding that complications/progression of atherosclerosis leads to other cardiac disorders such as, CAD, MI, etc. oPeripheral Artery Disease – intermittent claudicationAtherosclerotic disease of the arteries that go to the limbs, particular the lower extremities Intermittent Claudication:Pain when ambulatingoFrom partial Obstruction/ ischemia Coronary Artery Disease- 7 questions
oCoronary Artery DiseaseoAtherosclerotic plaque partially obstructs coronary blood flowoStable PlaqueoUnstable Plaque → rupture (thrombus)↓oVessel occlusionoMyocardial ischemiaoAcute Coronary Syndrome↓oTransient occlusionoSustained occlusionoStable Angina↓↓ooMyocardial IschemiaoUnstable AnginaoMyocardial Infarctiono-NSTEMIo-STEMIoSudden Cardiac DeathooContinuum of disease form atherosclerosis to myocardial ischemia to myocardial infraction (MI)oAtherosclerotic plaque partially obstructs coronary blood flow oRisk factors – modifiable vs. nonmodifiableModifiable:Anything that you can do something about, contribute to make a difference Dyslipidemia, HTN, Cigs smokin, DM- insulin resistance,Obesity, Sedentary lifestyle, Atherogenic diet (hella fat and cholesterol) Non-modifiable: Out of your control Advanced age, Male gender, Women after menopause, fam history oCAD/ Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: Dyslipidemia/ Hyperlipidemia/ Dyslipoporeteniam:Abnorm. Concentration of serum lipoprotein
Lipoprotein: Lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides bound to carrier protein Regulated by the liver Levels are function of multiple factors Concerned w/ Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDLs (triglycerides) LDL- Low density Lipoproteins oDelivers cholesterol to the tissue oKey in atherosclerosis, endothelial damage oHigh levels are associated w. CAD Focus of therapy is to lower LDL to reduce heart disease risk o<100= optimal aiming for HDL- High density lipoprotein- HAPPY oReverse cholesterol transport (from tissues to liver/bile) oEndothelial repair oLow levels associated w/ CAD