migrate over fatty streak Fibrous plaques may calcify protrude into lumen

Migrate over fatty streak fibrous plaques may calcify

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migrate over fatty streak Fibrous plaques may calcify, protrude into lumen/ create fissures Stable- Plaque= Thick fibrous cap Unstable plaque= think fibrous cap, thick lipid pool, prone to rupture o All Equal narrows the vessel of the lumen= obstruction of blood flow can produce symptoms (angina, intermittent claudication) Complicated Lesion o Plaques are unstable and can rupture prior tp occlusion o Rupture is caused by an immune response to endothelial injury/ tissue Rupture exposes the underlying tissue, causes platelet adhesion, initiate clotting cascade, and rapid thrombus formation Thrombus formation can occlude which results in ischemia and infarction o Head/neck assessment findings o Stable vs. unstable plaque Stable: Can’t rupture, thick fibrous cap Unstable: Thin fibrous cap, prone to rupture o Cholesterol Differentiate LDL, HDL, triglycerides HDL- good, want it high LDL- bad, gives plaques, Triglycerides- fatty acids, main component to make fat Identify optimal levels o Understanding that complications/progression of atherosclerosis leads to other cardiac disorders such as, CAD, MI, etc. o Peripheral Artery Disease – intermittent claudication Atherosclerotic disease of the arteries that go to the limbs, particular the lower extremities Intermittent Claudication: Pain when ambulating o From partial Obstruction/ ischemia Coronary Artery Disease- 7 questions
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o Coronary Artery Disease o Atherosclerotic plaque partially obstructs coronary blood flow o Stable Plaque o Unstable Plaque → rupture (thrombus) o Vessel occlusion o Myocardial ischemia o Acute Coronary Syndrome o Transient occlusion o Sustained occlusion o Stable Angina o o Myocardial Ischemia o Unstable Angina o Myocardial Infarction o -NSTEMI o -STEMI o Sudden Cardiac Death o o Continuum of disease form atherosclerosis to myocardial ischemia to myocardial infraction (MI) o Atherosclerotic plaque partially obstructs coronary blood flow o Risk factors – modifiable vs. nonmodifiable Modifiable: Anything that you can do something about, contribute to make a difference Dyslipidemia, HTN, Cigs smokin, DM- insulin resistance, Obesity, Sedentary lifestyle, Atherogenic diet (hella fat and cholesterol) Non-modifiable: Out of your control Advanced age, Male gender, Women after menopause, fam history o CAD/ Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: Dyslipidemia/ Hyperlipidemia/ Dyslipoporeteniam: Abnorm. Concentration of serum lipoprotein
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Lipoprotein: Lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides bound to carrier protein Regulated by the liver Levels are function of multiple factors Concerned w/ Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDLs (triglycerides) LDL- Low density Lipoproteins o Delivers cholesterol to the tissue o Key in atherosclerosis, endothelial damage o High levels are associated w. CAD Focus of therapy is to lower LDL to reduce heart disease risk o <100= optimal aiming for HDL- High density lipoprotein- HAPPY o Reverse cholesterol transport (from tissues to liver/bile) o Endothelial repair o Low levels associated w/ CAD
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