E the muckrakers did not attempt to start a third

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e. The muckrakers did not attempt to start a third political party that would overturn the corrupt, stalemated two-party system. The muckrakers believed that their exposure of the corrupt practices and corporate influences of the two-party system would lead Americans to demand greater direct citizen
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participation and influence in the electoral process and to call for new election and campaign laws that would reduce the nefarious influence of large economic interests, such as the trusts, on federal, state, and local government. Question 4 a. Correct answer. Political progressives believed that political and electoral reforms, such as the secret ballot, referendum, recall, and limits on political contributions from corporate interests, would curb the excesses of industrial and finance capitalism and stave off Socialism in the United States. Political progressives asserted that by increasing electoral avenues for direct democracy and by passing corrupt practices laws to limit the financial influence of corporations and other moneyed interests on the electoral process, they could propose and win approval of social and economic reform legislation that would otherwise die in trust-dominated state legislatures and a co-opted Congress. b. Many of the progressive political reforms achieved in state and municipal government preceded any comparable reforms in the federal government or represented distinctive examples of progressive reforms that failed to be replicated on the federal level. For example, the initiative petition, the referendum, direct primary elections, and recall elections were examples of direct democracy instruments that were only enacted in states such as Wisconsin and California during the Progressive era. States such as Wisconsin, California, and Oregon were also the laboratories for early experiments in government regulation of railroads and trusts, mostly through state public utilities commissions. During the Progressive era, many states, particularly liberal ones in the West, granted the vote to women, while universal female suffrage would have to wait until the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Cities such as Galveston, Texas appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs, and other local communities adopted the city-manager system to root out political influence from the administration of government affairs. c. Many progressive political reforms, such as the initiative petition, referendum, recall, and direct primary elections, were first developed, implemented, and evaluated on a statewide basis in Midwestern and Western states rather than in northeastern big cities. d. Progressives were wary of establishing political alliances with Socialists and other political radicals to achieve political reforms on a federal, state, and local level. Progressives believed that once they enacted instruments of direct democracy and passed laws to curb political corruption, they could regain political power from dominant business interests and use this political power to advance their conception of the public interest. At that point, Progressives
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