Chapter XVIII.3. Febrile Seizures1. At what ages do febrile seizures occur? How common is this problem?2. In what percentage of patients will febrile seizures occur a second time?3. What are the differences between simple and complex febrile seizures? Why is it important to know thisdistinction (think of recurrence risk of febrile seizures, development of epilepsy, and work-up)?4. A febrile seizure is a diagnosis of exclusion. What other diagnoses should be considered in a child withfever and seizures?5. According to the guidelines put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Practice Parameter, whoshould be strongly considered to receive a lumbar puncture?6. Most patients with febrile seizures can be discharged home. What are three indications for a child whoshould be hospitalized for overnight observation?7. Although diazepam (Valium) can be used to prevent recurrences when given at the start of a febrile illness,what are its disadvantages?8. A key part to management is reassurance. What are three ways parents should be reassured and educated?Chapter XVIII.4. Epilepsy1. List 4 basic types of seizures (hint: two are partial and two are generalized).2. List some of the old names that correlate to each of the above 4 seizure types and indicate the reason theseold names were used.3. A 14 year old girl is found unconscious. Witnesses say that she had some facial twitching. She graduallyawakens and tells you that she smelled some burning rubber just prior to feeling faint. She tried to call forhelp, but couldn't speak. She now seems to be normal. A CT scan demonstrates a left temporal lobearteriovenous malformation. What seizure type is she likely to have had and why?4. Can the term petit mal be used to describe a seizure of small jerking movements of one arm?5. Name some tests/studies which would be ordered for a 7 year-old girl who presents to the emergencydepartment actively having a generalized seizure which stops spontaneously. She is afebrile and was broughtin by her babysitter who is unaware of any history except that she may have been on some kind of medicine.6. Why would an eventual MRI be useful for the patient in questions 5 if there are no obvious reasons for theseizure?