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conclusion of the experiment, it was noted that increasing or decreasing the level of police patrol had no significant effect on the crimes traditionally considered to be prevented by random, highly visible police patrol such as burglaries, auto thefts, robberies, or vandalism (Police Foundation, 2016). Because of this, police departments were motivated to closely examine how their patrol resources were being allocated and were encouraged to focus more efforts on targeting specific crimes than trying to randomly prevent them. Types of patrol strategies that fulfill objectives to do that are directed patrols, hot-spot patrols, and zero-tolerance patrols.Directed patrols are patrols that are meant to combat a specific crime set. These crime sets include gun violence, illegal drug activity, robberies, domestic disturbances, etc. The patrols are developed based on data analysis that identifies specific times and locations the target activity typically occurs. After the data is analyzed, patrol officers are dispatched to direct their efforts towards the specific crime set and employ techniques such as saturation patrols, stakeouts,surveillance of suspects, and decoys (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011). A simple example that explains directed patrols is to think of a location within a city that struggles with robberies of conveniencestores. If trend analysis indicates the robberies typically occur between 9 to 11pm then officers would be directed to patrol convenience stores between those hours (Bruce, 2008). When it
PATROL STRATEGIES AND THE COMMUNITY4comes to measuring the level of effectiveness of directed patrols, it has been noted that success varies from study to study. Despite that, most studies have shown that departments who employ this strategy have seen decreases in the level of activity. According to a systematic review by Christopher Koper and Evan Mayo-Wilson, directed patrol strategies are effective, however, out of seven comparisons from four quasi-experimental studies, six showed positive results but there was wide variation in the overall effects (Koper & Mayo-Wilson, 2006).Another method of patrolling, and one of the most effective, is hot-spot patrols. Hot-spotsare defined as geographic locations that have a disproportionate amount of crime or a chronic repeat-call location (Gaines & Kappeler, 2011). To determine these geographic areas, police departments rely on crime-mapping technologies that analyze and cross-reference reports of criminal activity and their geolocation. By identifying these areas, police departments can refocus patrol beats and resources to concentrate on preventing or disrupting criminal activity within those high crime areas. Hot-spot policing has been deemed to be an effective method based on multiple studies. One such study is the systematic review conducted by the Campbell Collaboration Institute that examined 25 tests of hot spots policing in 19 eligible studies. Of the 25 tests, 20 reported noteworthy crime control gains associated with the hot spots policing