•complete oxidation of glucose - takes 6 oxygen atoms to get 6 water molecules - plus you get energy at the end (balanced equation) VIDEO 6 NAMES OF SUGAR MOLECULES •sugar = # of variations of fructose glucose (and the disaccharide sucrose) how they are represented: •the enzyme that breaks sucrose into the two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) has an “–ase” ending - Invertase: breaks down sucrose - Invert sugar VIDEO 7 •fructose is an important sugar - Used as an individual sugar because it is sweeter by itself so it can be used in lesser amounts •honey is made up of a mixture of sugars but substantial reason it is so sweet is because it has a high percentage of fructose and low percentage of sucrose •sucrose makes up most of brown sugar - Combined with molasses •maltose? - Disaccharide made up of two glucose molecules - Sweetening agent derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch •lactose? - Disaccharide made up of galactose and glucose •chemical structures of these are too complicated for our digestion (OH is either up or down) (up or down OH changes name of sugar) •a lot of ppl cannot digest milk products •lactase deficiency – World ~65% (2/3 of world population) - NA blacks 75% - NA whites 25% •can be genetic •some can be just below the level, but if they take in too much milk it causes problems •only 35% of the human pop can digest lactose beyond the age of 7 or 8 •there are tests that can be used to test for lactose intolerance
- Measuring hydrogen quantities in breath before and after consuming lactose - Higher hydrogen quantities with people who struggle digesting milk product - Measured by blowing in balloon •ppl can consume homogenized milk •there are different things that people can take to help them digest lactose •lactase does the same thing as any enzyme - The substrate goes into the active site - The enzyme then permits the break up of the disaccharide into galactose and glucose VIDEO 8 •beano: prevents gas from beans - Its an enzyme to addition to the enzymes we already talked about - Derived from Aspergillus niger - Alpha-galactosidase: this is the enzyme - It breaks down a variety of small sugars that creates gas from bean products •starch: - Amylose is broken down by amylase - amylopectin is a starch like molecule - easier to digest - many different possibilities to break it down - amylase is produced in pancreas and salivary glands - if you chew bread for a long time it will start to taste sweet because this enzyme gets released and you’ll be able to taste the glucose •the enzyme that takes starch down to the unit molecules: humans have it •animals have enzyme that breaks down cellulose to use for energy •starch and cellulose - Bond linkages change - The subtle difference that links all the glucose molecules together Fibre •Cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, lignin - Are all fibre-like materials •fibre is linked to: - Constipation - Diarrhea - Diverticulosis - Cancer - Heart disease •metamucil: - Natural product from silium fibre - Product for individuals who don’t consume enough fibre VIDEO 9
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- Spring '11
- The Jungle, Vitamin