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highest good), holds that pleasure isn’t the only thing good in itself. We also value good character and intelligent understanding of the world.9.prima facieduties - fundamental obligations or right-making characteristics. Conditional.•Duties resting on my previous actions(promise keeping)•Duties resting on the actions of others(gratitude)•Duties of justice•Duties of beneficence(benefiting others)•Duties of self-improvement(benefiting ourselves)•Duties of nonmaleficence(not injuring others)10. actual duty– considering all factors in a situation, this is the duty I find to be the most important. If my prima facie duties come into conflict, my actual duty is the one that is most important.11. intuitionism – intuitions are based by culture and past experience which makes it subjective. Not all people share the same intuitions, so you might not have a strong intuition about the right thing to do.12. hedonistic utilitarianism – perform the whichever action is best for everyone.
Hobbes“Why does the state of nature lead to a state of war?”In the state of nature, everyone is equal, including the strong and the weak because the strong must sleep and the weak can band together. Also, we are all equal in what we can do, how we esteem ourselves, and what we want. Three things lead people to quarrel in the state of nature: competition(my pursuit of possessions threatens yours), diffidence(I do not trust you to leave my possessions alone), and glory(every person thinks of him/herself as superior and wishes to be acknowledged as such. Hobbes says that people left to their own devices will always act egotistically.“Explain how the three laws of nature lead us to peace.”1stLaw of Nature: Every man should try to get peace as far as he has hopes of attaining it. When he can’t get peace, he must go to war.Reason this leads us to peace: I have a better chance of surviving if I help create conditions of peace.2ndLaw of Nature: A man should be willing, for peace and defense of himself, to be content with taking as much liberty as he would give to other men. Other people will only set aside their liberty to harm you if you set aside your liberty to harm them.3rdLaw of Nature: Men perform their covenants made, which gives rise to justice and injustice. In order for there to be justice, there must be a covenant and an enforcer.Reason this leads us to peace: If men can reach agreements with each other, they will feel secure enough that those promises will be honored and can confidently pursue projects.“What role does psychological egoism play in Hobbes’ moral philosophy?”Psychological Egoism – the theory that every human action is motivated by self-interest. (descriptive) Ethical Egoism – everyone should pursue their own self-interest. (prescriptive)Hobbes is both and believes that people pursue their best interest when they cooperate with each other.
Kant“How does Kant apply the first version of the categorical imperative to the examples of suicide, false promises, developing talents, and helping the less fortunate?”1st