Types of Discipline According to this study only two types of discipline were investigated: and negative discipline as identified by Umba (1976), Bull 1969) and Okumbe (1998). The first type, discipline is sometimes known as self-discipline. Self-discipline is the kind of discipline that comes from the aims and desires that are within the person, where there is no element of fear (Umba, 1976:8). Okumbe (1998:116) relates discipline with preventive discipline, providing gratification in order to remain committed to a set of values and goals. It is encouraged self-control, individual
responsibility in the management of time, respect of school property, school rules and authority, good relationship between students and teachers. The second type of discipline, negative discipline, occurs when an individual is forced to obey orders blindly or without reasoning. The individual may pretend to do good things or behave properly when superiors are present but once they are absent quite the opposite is done. For example, a teacher may behave well before his/her head of school, perhaps in pursuit of something like promotion or other favors’. Likewise, students may behave well when their teachers are present, but resort to mischief as soon as they are out of sight. Effective Discipline Skills According to Robbins (1998: 77), the essence of effective discipline can be summarized by the following eight behaviors. Respond immediately means the more quickly the disciplinary action follows an offence, the more likely that the person responds positively. Also provide a warning this mean you have an obligation of issuing a warning before initiating the disciplinary actions. Disciplinary action is more likely to be interpreted as fair if it is preceded by a warning. Furthermore state the problem specifically by giving the date, time, place and individual involved and any mitigating circumstances surrounding the violation. Also allow the person to explain his/her position regardless of what facts you have uncovered, due process demands that you give another person an opportunity to state his position. Likewise keep the discussion impersonal and penalties should be connected with a given violation not with the personality of the individual violator. Besides be consistent by fair treatment of individuals’ demands that disciplinary actions be consistent. Inconsistency allows rules lose their impact, moral will decline and your competence will be questionable. Finally take progressive action and penalties will become stronger if the offence is repeated The literature reveals that student indiscipline is experienced in schools globally (Ali et al., 2014; Moyo, Khewu, & Bayaga, 2014; Omote et al., 2015; Rahimi & Karkami, 2015; Yahaya et al., 2009). A study in West Virginia in the United States of America (USA) revealed that about 29.6% of 160,480 students (from grade 3 to 11) had one or more referrals for inappropriate behaviors (Whisman & Hammer, 2014). In Africa, researchers have pointed out the seriousness of indiscipline in schools in various countries. The countries include Ghana (Gyan, Baah- Korang, Mccarthy, & Mccarthy, 2015), South Africa (Marais & Meier, 2010; Masitsa, 2008),
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- Fall '19
- Secondary education, researcher, Secondary school