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ConstantineEdict of MilanConstantinopleRome 313 ADEmperor Constantine legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire.○This came to be known as The Edict of Milan○Constantine built a second Roman capital that was previously Byzantium■Named this city Constantinople○After his death, the Roman Empire usually had 2 emperors■One in Rome, and one in ConstantinopleThe Omens1. Flaming ear of corn (comet) 10 years before the Spaniards' arrival2. Temple of Huitzilopochtli burst into flames3. Temple of Xiuhtecuhtli struck by "a blow from the sun" (lightning)4. Fire streamed through the sky while the sun was still shining5. Wind lashed the water until it boiled (raging waters)6. People heard a weeping woman night after night7. A strange bird-like creature captured in the nets8. Monstrous beings with two heads appeared in the streetsToltecsDominated the are from 800-1000 ADAztecsnomads who settled on an undesirable island○Built capital city Tenochtitlan in 1325○worshipped Quetzalcoatl and raised war god Huitzilopochtli to level of sun god.■Tributes = human heart sacrificesMotecuhzoma (Montezuma II)
● The ruling emperor at the time of Cortes' arrival● Had to deal with seeing if Cortes was Quetzalcoatl or not● Eventually killed in the conflict after being held hostage by Cortes● Unsure if Aztec people or Spaniards killed himQuetzalcoatlGod worshipped by Toltecs● Basically, Quetzalcoatl was kicked out of the land, but vowed toreturn one day appearing from the East● Aztec astrologers predicted he would come the same year Cortes landed, 1519Huitzilopochtligod of warHernan CortezThe first conquistador (1485-1547)● From Medellin, Spain● Aspired to sail to China from the West○brought 500 soldiers/slaves to join him (against orders)○Hit Mexico instead (1519)Pedro de Alvarado● Cortes' right hand man● Ordered as commander when Cortes took leave to deal with another issue● Ordered the massacre of Aztecs at the Fiesta of Toxcatl for HuitzilopochtliTezcocoCortes marched to Tezcoco, where they were welcomed● Prince Ixtlilxochitl welcomed them and converted to Christianity. He also convinced his people to ally with the conquistadors● Whether or not Cortes actually stayed there for a bit or just passed by is debated historicallyTlaxcala○Cortes and the Tlaxcalans fought for a while○Tlaxcalans saw it was impossible to best Cortes, so offered him gifts and formed an allianceCholula
● Allied with the Tlaxcalans, the Spaniards entered Cholula○Tlaxcalans hated the Cholulans○called for a meeting in the courtyard of the god○slaughtered by joint alliance ○Some accounts claim that the idea to slaughter the Cholula wasa purely Tlaxcalan idea○However, there was also an account that said that the Tlaxcalans warned the Cholula about the power of the Spanish,