Comments on the Catholic mourning ceremony in contrast to Chinese ancestral

Comments on the catholic mourning ceremony in

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--Comments on the Catholic mourning ceremony in contrast to Chinese ancestral worship --Change to secular life: quitted from MEP; librarian work; marriage with a French woman --Change of identity: “a humble subject from a distant country” in a letter to the Duke of Orleans 3. Louis Fan (Fan Shouyi 鄭鄭鄭 , 1682-1753) * Connection with the Jesuits: travelled with Francesco Provana (1662-1720) to Rome in 1709; met with Pope Clement XI (1649-1721) on the Chinese Rites Controversy; returned China in 1718 and summoned by Emperor Kangxi to report his overseas experiences. * Shenjian lu 鄭鄭鄭 ( Record of Personal Witnesses ): a paradise image of Christianity and Europe 4. Reflections on 18 th -century Chinese travel writings * Image-makers: shift from missionaries in China to Chinese travelers to Europe * An eccentric tendency in comparison with the established Sino-centric model world order III. Dilemma between Two Worlds among Late 19 th -Century Travelers to Europe 1. Historical Background: * The great change of China-West relations in the late 19 th century * Two major groups of Chinese travelers to the West: official diplomats and independent scholars 2. Kuo Sung-t’ao ( 鄭鄭鄭 , 1818-1891) and Liu Hsi-hung ( 鄭鄭鄭 , ?-1891) * First Qing official embassy to Europe in 1876: personal conflicts between Kuo and Liu * Internal struggle between the pro-reform party and the conservative party in the Qing court 3. Kuo’s image of the West: challenge of the Eurocentric view; England as a model; realistic view on Western culture and politics 4. Liu’s image of the West: negative, but not a total denial; “not suitable” strategy; Sino-centric view in cultural and moral terms IV. Reflections 1. Ideological pattern: barbarian, tributary images in the 15 th century (Emperor Yongle, Gong Zhen) 2. Utopian pattern: paradise images in the 17 th and 18 th century (Arcade Huang, Louis Fan) 3. In-between pattern: nuanced variables in the 19 th century (Kuo Sung-t’ao and Liu Hsi-hung)
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