Functions of carbohydrates in the human body o energy

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Functions of carbohydrates in the human bodyoEnergy production  glucose is catabolized during glycolysis toyield energy oStorage form of energy polysaccharides= glycogen oStructural framework of the plasma membrane  glycolipid, glycoprotein
oProtein synthesis  pentose sugars form part of DNA and RNALipid is surrounded by proteins to make it hydrophilic so the lipid can be transported to cells Lipprotiens are named basedLipids are less dense than proteins Very low density Low density Lipid> protiens High density lipoprotein Protein > lipids °Lipoproteins Lipid surrounded by protiens  Lipoproteins Transporting Lipoproteins named based on the ratio pf lipids; protteins Lipids are less dense than proteins 3 tpes of lipoproteins o1. Very low density lipoproteins (vLDLs)oLipid> protiens oMajor lipids in vLDLs Triglycerides (neutral fats vLDLs transport triglycerides in the blood to the adiposetissue for storage
ofunction of the stored triglycerides: most concentrated form of stored energy catabolize 1g of fat yields 9 kcal (catabolize 1g of glycogen (glucose) 4kcal)(catabolize 1g of proteins yeilds 4 kcal)Hence, excess glucose beyond energy required beyond glycogenesis (to produce 500g-600g) will be turned into fat, via a process called lipogenesisExcess amino acids beyond structural functional protein synthesis  converted into fat for storage o2. Stored triglycerides in adipose tissue is for protection of organs against trauma  coushioning, capsule for the protection ostored triglycerides on the adipose tissue surrounding organs hold the organs in the correct anatomical position Low density lipoprotiedns (LDLs) Lipids > proteins Major lipids is cholesterol transport cholesterol to the plasma membrane where cholesterol maintains the integrity of the plasma membrane cholesterol stabilizes the plasma membrane LDLs transport cholesterol to sterioid hormones producing cells (steroidogenic cells) because cholesterol in the sterling material for the synthesis of all the steroid hormones oMaintenance hormones oReproductive hormones Functions of LDL oSteroid hormone synthesis oTo maintain the integrity of the plasma membrane oWhy is LDL referred to as the bad cholesterol
Too much cholesterhol on the diet wll result in higher LDLsExcess LDLs beyond steroid hormone synthesis + stabilizw the plasma membrane_ will result in the cholesterol forming plaques in the internal surface of blood vessels Atherosclerotic plague Formation in the large blood vessel  hypertension (sustained blood pressure Atherosclerotic plagues decreses the lumen (space) inside the blood vessels blood flow Due to increase in resistence whish is an increase in blood pressure Atherisclerotic The smallest blood vessels in the systematic circulation Cerebral vasculature Coronary vasculature Will lead to occulusion (complete blockage) Prevents bloode flow  tissue By the occluded vessel lacks of nutrient

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